"Gazelle" Gas-2705>> Electric equipment>> Electric equipment of cars with engines ZMZ-4061, ЗМЗ-4063>> Microprocessor system of ignition
The microprocessor system of ignition is intended for ignition of a working mix in cylinders of the engine with installation of an optimum angle of an advancing of ignition for the given power setting. This system operates work of the electromagnetic valve экономайзера compulsory idling (ЭПХХ).
By means of microprocessor system of ignition more economic work of the engine is reached; at its increase мощностных indicators work of the engine with a detonation is excluded and norms on toxicity of exhaust gases are carried out. This system is more durable and it is more reliable in comparison with classical system of ignition.
In it there are no the details which are exposed to deterioration (except electrodes of spark plugs).

Fig. 9.81. Numbering of conclusions of sockets (a kind from outside wires): XI — a socket of the block of management of ignition system; Х2 — a socket of gauges of temperature and a detonation; ХЗ — a socket of gauges of position of a cranked shaft and absolute pressure





Fig. 9.80. The electric scheme of system of ignition: В63 — the gauge of absolute pressure; В70 — the gauge of temperature of a cooling liquid of a control system of the engine; В74 — the synchronisation gauge; В92 — the detonation gauge; D5 — the block of management of system tightening; F1, F2, F3, F4 — spark plugs; Т1, Т4 — ignition coils; Y3 — electromagnetic valve EPHH; Х2 — a connector with бортсетью the car; Х51 — колодка diagnostics; I — numbers of conclusions
Symbols of colours of wires: — white; Г — blue; — yellow; 3 — green; To — red; Кч — brown; About — orange; Р — pink; With — grey; Ч — black, Ф — violet; БС — white-grey; БЧ — white-black; ЖС — yellow-grey; ЗБ — green-white; КС — red-grey; СГ — grey-blue; СК — grey-red; РЗ — rozovo-green. The part of wires can have digital marks




The microprocessor system of ignition consists of the block of the management, two coils of ignition, spark plugs, gauges, electromagnetic valve EPHH and a control lamp of diagnostics. Structure of system and the scheme of connections it is shown on pис. 9.80, and on fig. 9.81 numbering of conclusions of sockets is given.
The block of management of microprocessor system of ignition
The microprocessor electronic block of management МИКАС 5.4.209.3763.004* is intended for:
- Formations of impulses of an electric current for work of coils of ignition with an optimum angle of an advancing of ignition;

* On a part of cars the block of management МИКАС 7.1.243.376-3-01 can be established.

- Formations of impulses of an electric current for work of electromagnetic valve EPHH;
- Maintenance of work of all system in a reserve mode (in case of failure of separate elements of system);
- Diagnostics of malfunctions of system.
The block basic element — the microprocessor — makes all calculations and development of all necessary data which is ensuring functioning of system of ignition and ЭПХХ. The block works in the complete set with following gauges and knots:
- The gauge of position of a cranked shaft and turns (the synchronisation gauge);
- The gauge of absolute pressure of air in an inlet pipe of the engine;
- The gauge of temperature of the engine;
- The detonation gauge;
- Ignition coils;
- Electromagnetic valve EPHH;
- Control lamp of diagnostics.
Microprocessor system of ignition and ЭПХХ work as follows.

Fig. 3.1. Controls




At ignition inclusion on the panel of devices the signalling device (1 or 33 (fig. 3.1 see) lights up. At this time the microprocessor works in a self-diagnostics mode. After the termination of this mode the control lamp dies away, if malfunctions are not found out, or burns, if malfunction is found out. If the signalling device has gone out, the system is serviceable and ready to work. At scrolling of the engine by a starter on signals of the gauge of position of a cranked shaft the management block gives out electric current impulses in coils of ignition for maintenance of work of candles according to an operating procedure of cylinders of the engine 1-3-4-2. The High voltage from each coil of ignition simultaneously moves to two candles:
- To a candle in the cylinder where there is a step of compression of a working mix (for example, 1st cylinder) and which electric category ignites it;
- Simultaneously there is an electric category in the second candle in the fourth cylinder where there is a step of an exit of the fulfilled gases; this category does not influence engine work.
For definition of an optimum angle of an advancing of ignition the block uses the data from all gauges and the data put in its memory. For each concrete power setting the management block gives out the data on a corner of an advancing of ignition. The block continuously corrects the target data under the changing data of gauges. The block also operates work of system EPHH blocking giving of fuel at work of the car in a mode of movement накатом with not disconnected engine. At such mode there is no necessity for fuel giving for the engine, the economy of fuel thereby is provided and emission of toxic substances in atmosphere decreases. In case of failure of separate gauges or their chains (except the gauge of position of a cranked shaft) the block passes to a reserve operating mode, using the data put in its memory. Thus on the panel of devices the control lamp lights up; it will burn constantly before malfunction elimination.
Block work in a reserve mode allows operation of the car before carrying out of the qualified repair work.
At engine work in a reserve operating mode of the block worsens приемистость, toxicity and can increase the fuel expense.
The management block is fixed to a guard arm передка by special bolts with the curtailed heads (for an exception unapproved съема the block from the car).
Dismantle and block installation can be made in two ways.
Way 1:
- To drill a drill in diameter of 5,2-5,5 mm спецболты and to remove the block;
- To cut in приварных nuts on an arm carving М6, to establish the block into place and to fix its screws M6.
Way 2:
- To drill a drill in diameter of 6,4-6,6 mm спецболты and to remove the block;
- To establish the block into place and to fix its standard screws and nuts М6.
Malfunctions of system of ignition and ЭПХХ
In the management block there is a self-diagnostics mode with which help it is possible to define malfunctions in system.
If the management block in a self-diagnostics mode cannot define malfunction it is necessary to use special device DST-2 with a corresponding cartridge (the cartridge with the program). Thus it is necessary to be guided by the instruction applied on the device.
The management block in a self-diagnostics mode gives out light codes on a control lamp. Each malfunction the digital code is appropriated. The digital code is defined on number of inclusions of a control lamp. At first consider number of inclusions of a lamp for definition of the first figure of a code (for example, figure 1 — one short inclusion 0,5 c, figure 2 — two short inclusions, then goes a pause 1,5 with. After it consider number of inclusions for definition of the second figure of a code, then the third then there is a pause in 4 with, defining the code end). If the code three-value, the first figure is highlighted by duration 1 with.
For transfer of the block of management in a self-diagnostics mode:
- To disconnect the storage battery on 10-15 with and again to connect;

Fig. 9.82. A diagnostic socket: 1 — a diagnostic socket; 2 — an additional wire




- To start the engine and to allow to it to work 30—60 with idling, — a separate wire to connect conclusions of the diagnostic socket it agree fig. 9.82. The socket is established in motor branch on a guard передка on the left side.
After transfer of the block of management in a self-diagnostics mode the control lamp should highlight a code 12 three times that testifies to the beginning of work of a mode of self-diagnostics. Following codes will display available malfunction or some malfunctions. Each code repeats three times.
After indication of all codes of available malfunctions the code 12 three times is highlighted and indication of codes repeats.
If the management block cannot define malfunction or malfunctions are not present, the code 12 is highlighted. Diagnostic codes of malfunctions of microprocessor system of ignition and ЭПХХ are resulted in tab. 9.8.

Table 9.8. Diagnostic codes of malfunctions of microprocessor system of ignition and ЭПХХ
Diagnostic codes of malfunctions of microprocessor system of ignition and ЭПХХ
№ a code
Malfunction
12
The self-diagnostics mode is included
15
Short circuit in a chain of the gauge of absolute pressure of air
16
Breakage of a chain of the gauge of absolute pressure of air
21
Short circuit in a chain of the gauge of temperature of the engine
22
Breakage in a chain of the gauge of temperature of the engine
25
Low level of pressure in бортсети the car
51, 52
61-65
Malfunction of the block of management
53
Malfunction of the gauge of position of a cranked shaft or high level of hindrances in бортсети the car
181
Short circuit in a chain of a control lamp of diagnostics (it is defined only by device DST2)
182
Breakage in a chain of a control lamp of diagnostics (it is defined only by device DST2)
197
Short circuit in valve EPHH chain
198
Breakage of a chain of valve EPHH


The gauge of position of a cranked shaft of the engine (synchronisation)
The inductive gauge defines angular position of a cranked shaft of the engine, synchronisation of work of the block of management with working process of the engine and frequency eгo rotations.

Fig. 9.83. The gauge of position of a cranked shaft: 1 — windings; 2 — the case; 3 — a magnet; 4 — a sealant; 5 — a drive; 6 — a fastening arm; 7 — магнитопровод; 8 — a synchronisation disk




The gauge is established in a forward part of the engine on the right side. The gauge device is shown on fig. 9.83.
The gauge is an inductive coil 1 with a magnet 3 and the core 7. The gauge works together with the gear disk of synchronisation 8 established on a pulley of a cranked shaft. Passage by an end face of the core 7 gauges of teeths of a disk of synchronisation 8, causes change of a magnetic stream in the gauge. Change of a magnetic stream causes occurrence of a variable electric current in the gauge coil. The arising alternating voltage is transferred in the block of management which processes them with other signals of gauges and forms parametres of electric impulses for work of coils of ignition.
At failure of the gauge of position of a cranked shaft or its chains work of system of ignition and accordingly the engine stops.
Serviceability of the gauge can be checked up an ohmmeter. Resistance of the coil of the gauge should be in limits 850—900 Ohm; a backlash between the core of the gauge and disk-synchronisation teeths — in limits (10,5) mm.
Better check of serviceability of the gauge is necessary for making device DST-2 at scrolling of the engine by a starter.
The faulty gauge to replace.
The detonation gauge
The gauge defines a detonation at engine work. A detonation — unapproved spontaneous ignition of a working mix in engine cylinders. At engine work in such mode there are strong vibrating and thermal loadings on an engine detail.
Work of the engine with a detonation can lead to destruction of details of the engine (for example, the piston, a lining of a head of the block, etc.).
The detonation gauge is established on the right party of the block of cylinders in a zone of the quarter cylinder.

Fig. 9.84. The detonation gauge: 1 — the tip; 2 — an insulator; 3 — the case; 4 — a nut; 5 — an elastic washer; 6 — an inertial washer; 7 — a piezoelement; 8 — a contact plate




The device of the piezoelectric gauge of a detonation is shown on fig. 9.84.
Ocновные gauge elements: a quartz piezoelement 7 and inertial weight 6 (washer). At engine work there is a vibration of its details. The inertial weight 6 gauges influences a piezoelement 7; in it there are electric signals of certain size and the form. Detonation occurrence in engine work sharply increases vibration that increases amplitude of pressure of electric signals of the gauge. Electric signals of the gauge are transferred in the management block. On signals of the gauge of a detonation the management block corrects a corner of an advancing of ignition before the detonation termination. At failure of the gauge or its electric chains the management block signals the driver inclusion of a control lamp.
Serviceability of the gauge can be checked up only at work of the engine as device DST-2.
It is necessary to replace the faulty gauge.
The temperature gauge
The gauge of temperature of a cooling liquid is the semi-conductor element changing the conductivity depending on the surrounding temperature.
The gauge is established in a branch pipe of the thermostat and intended for definition of temperature of a cooling liquid of the engine. The gauge is included in the electronic scheme of the block of management which on power failure size in a gauge chain (depending on temperature) corrects a corner of an advancing of ignition.
At malfunction occurrence in the gauge or in chains of the gauge the management block signals the driver inclusion of a control lamp.
Serviceability of the gauge is necessary for checking device DST-2; at its absence — on power failure size in a gauge chain at various temperatures.

Fig. 9.85. The electric scheme of check of the gauge of temperature: 1 — resistance a variable 10 clod; 2 — the storage battery; 3 — the voltmeter, 4 — миллиамперметр; 5 — the gauge




For check it is necessary to collect the scheme (fig. 9.85 see). Resistance 1 on миллиамперметру 4 to establish a current in a chain 1—1,5 мА. At +25 About the voltmeter 4 should show pressure 2,957—3,022 Century
Changing surrounding temperature of the gauge, to spend gaugings of a power failure by the voltmeter 3. It should keep within the limits specified more low:
+40 WITH — 2,287—2,392 IN
+90 WITH — 3,642—3,737 IN
It is necessary to replace the faulty gauge.
The gauge of absolute pressure
The gauge of absolute pressure measures pressure (разряжение) air in an inlet pipe of the engine. The gauge is established on a guard передка under a cowl and connected by a hose to an inlet pipe of the engine. The gauge is a film (membrane) on which the resistive layer changing the resistance depending on a bend of a membrane, depending from разряжения in an inlet pipe is put. As a part of the gauge there is the electronic amplifier processing the data, the films received from a resistive layer and transferring them in the block of management of ignition. Serviceability of the gauge is checked by device DST-2 as a part of the car.
The ignition coil
Ignition coils are intended for production of an electric current of a high voltage for ignition of a working mix in engine cylinders.

Fig. 9.86. The ignition coil: 1 — магнитопровод; 2 — the case; 3 — the coil; 4 — a winding secondary; 5 — a winding primary; 6 — a high-voltage conclusion; 7 — компаунд; 8 — скоба fastenings




Ignition coils (2 pieces) are established from above the engine. The device of the coil of ignition is shown on fig. 9.86. The ignition coil is a transformer. On магнитопроводе 1 the primary winding 5 is reeled up, and from above it sections reel up a secondary winding 3. Windings are concluded in the plastic case 2. The space between windings is filled компаундом 7. On the case there are conclusions low and a high voltage 6. Electric impulses of a low voltage arrive in the coil of ignition from the management block. In the coil of ignition they are transformed to electric impulses of a high voltage which on wires is transferred to candles. The electric category occurs simultaneously in two candles of the first and fourth cylinders or the second and third cylinders.
For example, one electric category occurs in a candle of the first cylinder when the compression step there comes to an end; the second category occurs in a candle of the fourth cylinder when there there is an exhaust step. The electric category in a candle of the fourth cylinder at an exhaust step does not influence engine work.
At the further turn of a cranked shaft the electric category will occur in a candle of the fourth cylinder, in the end of a compression step, and in the first cylinder — the electric category in a candle will occur at an exhaust step.
For check of working capacity of coils disconnect both high-voltage wires from tips of candles of one coil of ignition. Arrange tips of wires on distance of 5 mm from each other. At scrolling of the engine by a starter in an interval between tips should periodically (in a step of work of cylinders of the engine) to occur the electric category. The same method checks the second coil of ignition.
Resistance of windings of the coil of ignition at temperature +25 With should be in limits:
- Primary 0,4—0,5 Ohm;
- Secondary 5—7 clod.
The faulty coil to replace.
Spark plugs
For engines ZMZ-4061, ЗМЗ-4063 it is recommended to apply spark plugs А14ДВР or import analogues.
At check of candles А14ДВР it is necessary to mean that in a candle insulator it is placed resistive наполнитель for decrease in level of a radio noise. The resistance size between the top conclusion and the central electrode of a candle should be no more than 10 000 Ohm; a backlash between candle electrodes — 0,7—0,85 mm.
High voltage wires
Wires are made of a wire of mark ПВВП or ПВППВ. This wire has the plastic core with ferrite наполнителем. On the core by a wire with high оммическим resistance (2000+200 Ohm the spiral is reeled up on 1 m of length). From above the spiral is covered by plastic isolation. Wire ПВВП or ПВППВ reduces level of the radio noise created by system of ignition.
During operation it is necessary to watch, that on a surface of wires of a high voltage oil as their surface will intensively become soiled did not get that in turn will cause leaks of a power-current and isolation breakdown. At oil hit on their wires it is necessary to wipe a rag moistened in gasoline.
If necessary it is necessary to check serviceability of a current carrying vein of a wire an ohmmeter. Resistance of wires to 1 and to 2 cylinders should be no more than 1000 Ohm, and wires to 3 and 4 cylinders — no more than 900 Ohm.
Tips of spark plugs

Fig. 9.87. A tip of spark plugs: 1 — a nest contact; 2 — a core; 3 — a spring; 4 — помехоподавительное resistance; 5 — a tip; 6 — the case; 7 — a lock spring



High voltage wires are connected to candles through special tips. The tip device is shown on fig. 9.87. Resistance of a serviceable tip should be no more than 8000 Ohm.