"Gazelle" Gas-2705>> Electric equipment>> Electric equipment of cars with engines ZMZ-4025, ЗМЗ-4026>> Starter
Engine start-up is carried out by starter СТ230-Б4* with the electromagnetic traction relay. The starter is established on the left side of the engine and fastens to картеру couplings.

* On a part of cars the starter 422.3708 (the device, service and repair — see section 8.3) can be established.

Starter technical characteristics
Rated voltage, В.... 12
Number of teeths of a gear wheel of a drive of a starter..... 9
The gear wheel module..... 2,5
Rated power (with the battery in capacity 55 Ач), kw..... 1,5
Idling mode at pressure 12 In:
Consumed current, And, no more..... 85
Frequency of rotation of a shaft, mines-1, not less..... 4000
Mode of full braking at a food of a starter from the 12-volt battery in capacity 60 Ач:
Consumed current, And, no more..... 550
Twisting moment, Nanometer (кгсм), not less..... 20,0 (2,0)
Pressure of inclusion of the main contacts of the traction relay at a lining between a gear wheel
And a persistent ring of 16,5 mm, In, no more..... 8,0
Number of poles..... 4
Excitation windings:       
Four coils wire ПММ сеч. 1,5x5,6 mm on 8,5 coils everyone
Brushes:        
     Меднографитные, marks МГСО, 4 pieces, разм. 8,8x19,2X14 mm
Anchor winding:       
      Wire ПММ section 2,26x3,53 mm,
 Quantity of conductors
        In section — 1, a step
        On grooves 1—8, a step
        On a collector 1—15
Effort of springs, Н (кгс)..... 8,5—14,0 (0,85—1,4)
The traction relay:
Involving winding..... Wire ПЭВ-2, diameter of 1,18-1,36 mm, 180 coils, resistance 0,35—0,36 Ohm
Keeping winding..... Wire ПЭВ-2, diameter of 0,75-0,89 mm, 180 coils, resistance 1,06—1,14 Ohm
       

Fig. 9.18. A starter: 1 — a protective casing; 2 — a sealing lining; 3 — a brush; 4 — a cover from outside a collector; 5 — an excitation winding; 6 — the case; 7 — adjusting washers; 8 — a collector; 9 — an anchor; 10 — the intermediate bearing; 11 — a lever axis; 12 — covers from outside a drive; 13 — a persistent washer; 14 — замковое a ring; 15 — a persistent ring; 16 — a drive with муфтой a free wheeling; 17 — a buffer spring; 18 — the lever; 19 — the plug отводки; 20 — an anchor of the traction relay; 21 — a returnable spring; 22 — the coupling screw; 23 — a brush spring; 24 — the traction relay; 25 — a contact disk; 26 — a cover of the traction relay




Starter — two-port четырехщеточный the direct current electric motor. The starter shaft rotates clockwise (if to take a detached view a starter drive). The device of a starter and the electromagnetic relay is shown on fig. 9.18.
At turn of a key of the switch of ignition in an hour hand direction start-up position joins an electric chain of the additional relay of a starter 711.3747—02 through which contacts a food moves from the storage battery in the traction relay (see the scheme of an electric equipment of the car). The anchor of the traction relay under the influence of an electromagnetic field of two windings of the relay is involved and by means of the lever enters into gearing a gear wheel and in the end of a course includes an electric chain of a starter, simultaneously having disconnected involving winding of the relay.
After engine start-up it is necessary to release a key of the switch of ignition immediately. The chain of the additional relay of a starter and the traction relay will thus be opened will be switched off under the influence of a returnable spring.
Starter maintenance service
At maintenance service it is necessary to check up a condition of clips, without supposing their pollution and fastening easing.
The starter consumes the big current, therefore even insignificant transitive resistance in a starter chain lead to the big power failure and decrease in capacity of a starter.
Special attention turn on a condition of a collector and brushes. Be convinced that brushes not заедают in щеткодержателях. The height of brushes should be not less than 5 mm. The effort of a spring should be within 8,5—14 Н (0,85—1,4 кгс).
In case of pollution or insignificant обгорания the collector should be smoothed out a small glass skin granularity 80 or 100. At an insignificant roughness of a collector and выступании isolation between plates the collector should be pierced on a lathe.
The burnt slightly contacts of the electromagnetic relay of a starter should be smoothed out a glass skin or a flat velvet file to provide contact on all surface with a contact disk. If contact bolts in places of contact with a contact disk have the big deterioration, turn them on 180 .
Removal and starter dismantling
For starter removal it is necessary:
- To disconnect an accumulator room батapeю;
- To disconnect wires from a starter;
- The valve of an oil radiator with запорным краником to turn on 90 forward;
- To lift the receiver rod маслоуказателя;
- To turn away a nut of fastening of a starter and to remove a starter.
Dismantling. A starter which is subject to repair, it is necessary to disassemble. Starter details carefully to clear of a dirt and to check up. The damaged and worn out details should be replaced by the new. The starter is necessary for assorting in a following order:
- To remove a protective casing (fig. 9.18 see);
- To take out brushes from щеткодержателей. Brushes and щеткодержатели should be numbered, that at brush assemblage to establish on the places;
- To turn away coupling screws of 22 cases of a starter and to uncover 4 from outside a collector;
- To disconnect a wire from the traction relay;
- To remove the case 6 starters;
- To remove an axis 11 levers of a drive;
- To take out an anchor together with a drive, thus to remove from a pin of a shaft of an anchor adjusting washers from outside a drive. To shift the persistent plug on a shaft of an anchor towards a gear wheel. To remove a spring ring under the persistent plug, then to remove the persistent plug and a drive;
- To remove the traction relay 24; to uncover 26 relays; to remove запорную a washer and a contact disk 25 from a rod;
- If necessary to turn on in the special adaptation screws крепленйя poles and to remove excitation windings.
Check of a condition of details and starter repair

Fig. 9.19. Check of coils of excitation of a starter on short circuit with the case




By means of a control lamp to be convinced of absence of short circuit of coils of excitation on the case. For this purpose it is necessary the control lamp included in a chain of an alternating current 220 In, to connect to the case and a conclusion located on the case (fig. 9.19). If the lamp burns, means isolation of coils of excitation is damaged.

Fig. 9.20. Отвертывание screws of fastening of poles of a starter




In this case it is necessary to number poles of coils, on the special adaptation to turn on screws of fastening of poles (fig. 9.20) and to remove excitation windings. The damaged places of isolation to repair изоляционной a tape. After that poles and coils to put into place. Screws of poles закернить.

Fig. 9.21. Check isolated щеткодержателей a starter on short circuit with the case




By means of a control lamp to be convinced of absence of short circuit isolated щеткодержателей on the case (fig. 9.21). At short circuit it is necessary to replace изоляционную a lining and the plug of rivets щеткодержателя. Rocking щеткодержателей is not supposed. Brushes in щеткодержателях should move freely, without jammings. The cover plug from outside a collector in case of its deterioration to replace. Diameter of an aperture of the new plug after запрессовки and development should be 14+0,035мм with cleanliness of processing Ra = 2,5. The brushes which have been worn out to height of 5 mm, it is necessary to replace.
For check щеточных springs it is necessary to put on a cover an anchor shaft. To establish brushes into place and to check up a dynamometer effort of springs. The effort should be within 8,5—14 Н (0,85—1,4 кгс) at the moment of a separation of a spring from a brush. The ends щеточных springs should press the brush middle.
In a cover from outside a drive to check up a condition of the plug (bearing); in case of need in a cover to establish the new plug, which diameter of an aperture after запрессовки and expansions should be in limits 12+0,035мм.

Fig. 9.22. Check of a winding of an anchor of a starter on short circuit with магнитопроводом




To be convinced by means of a control lamp of absence of short circuit of a winding of an anchor on an anchor package. For this purpose connect one end to any of ламелей anchors, and another — to a package of iron of an anchor. The lamp should not burn (fig. 9.22).
Attentively to examine an anchor. The front part of a winding of an anchor should be on diameter of less package of iron. The increased diameter of a front part of a winding specifies in winding "rating". Such anchor is subject to replacement. The ends of wires of windings should be reliably soldered to cockerels of a collector.
Anchor to check up on absence межвитковых short circuits. In case of detection of short circuit an anchor to replace.
The anchor collector should be pure. At a considerable roughness of a collector or выступании isolation it should be pierced on a lathe, then to grind a glass skin granularity 100 to roughness Ra = 1,25.
Palpation of a collector concerning shaft pins should not exceed 0,05 mm. Palpation of a package of iron of an anchor concerning shaft pins should not exceed 0,25 mm. Simultaneously check up absence of a deflection of a shaft as the deflection can appear the reason of jamming of a drive on шлицевой shaft parts. If on an anchor shaft, in that place where the starter gear wheel rotates, there is a yellow touch from the bearing, it should be removed a small skin. Presence of a yellow touch often leads to gear wheel jamming on a shaft after start-up of the engine and to "rating" of a winding of an anchor.
Starter drive examine outside and check up absence of proslipping. The drive should freely, without jammings, move on шлицевой shaft parts. At strong deterioration of plugs (bearings) of a drive it is necessary to replace them. Diameter of an aperture of new plugs after запрессовки and development should be 14+0,06 mm with a roughness of a surface of aperture Rа = 1,25.
At deduction of an anchor the gear wheel should rotate freely clockwise. Counter-clockwise the gear wheel should rotate only together with an anchor. Check муфты a free wheeling on proslipping is made at test of a starter for full braking at the stand.
Serviceability of involving and keeping windings is necessary for checking up an ohmmeter or to measure resistance by means of the voltmeter and the ampermeter.
Resistance of an involving winding should be 0,30—0,36 Ohms, and a keeping 1,06—1,14 Ohm. If windings are faulty, it is necessary to replace the traction relay. Klemmovye bolts should be smoothed out, and at their strong burning out to turn on a corner 180 about the axis. At strong deterioration of a contact disk to turn its not worn out party to contacts.
The anchor of the traction relay in the case should move freely. If the spring ring of an anchor has deformation, it is necessary to replace it new or to correct.
After check, replacements of all worn out, damaged details and greasing of bearings, pins and шлицевой engine oil a starter can be collected parts of a shaft.
Assemblage.
Starter assemblage is made in an order, the return to dismantling.
At a definitive inhaling of coupling screws it is necessary to combine pins and grooves on covers and the case.
To check up size axial люфта anchors which should be about 1 mm.
After assemblage it is necessary to check up starter work at the stand. At inclusion of a starter the drive should move on шлицевой parts of a shaft without jammings and come back in a starting position under the influence of a returnable spring. At turn of a gear wheel by a hand clockwise the anchor should not get under way from a place, at return rotation the gear wheel should rotate together with shaft. It is necessary to make check and starter adjustment.

Fig. 9.23. Gauging of position of a gear wheel of a drive in the switched off condition




Gear wheel installation in the switched off position should correspond fig. 9.23. The distance And from привалочной planes of a flange of a starter should equal 34 mm.

Fig. 9.24. The scheme of check of adjustment of the switch of a starter




Fig. 9.25. Gauging of a backlash from an end face of a gear wheel to a cup of a persistent ring at completely involved anchor of the traction relay




To check up a full start of a gear wheel at the included traction relay. For this purpose to include the traction relay, as is shown in fig. of 9.24 Distance between an end face of a gear wheel and an emphasis should be 3 5 mm (pиc. 9.25). This backlash is regulated by turn of an excentric axis 11 (fig. 9.18 see) drive lever. After adjustment to tighten an axis nut, holding an axis from turn. Malfunction of a starter, correctness of its assemblage and adjustment is defined:
- Check of adjustment of the switch of a starter;
- Starter check idling and at full braking.
Mines

Fig. 9.26. The inclusion scheme at starter test: 1 — the lever; 2 — a dynamometer; 3 — a starter; 4 — the traction relay of a starter; 5 — the switch; 6 — the pressure index; 7 — the current index; 8 — the shunt of the index of a current; 9 — the storage battery




For starter check are necessary the low-voltage unit (or well charged battery), the voltmeter of a direct current with a scale from 0 to 30 In, the index of a direct current with the shunt to 1000 And, a tachometre with a scale to 10 000-1 and a dynamometer. The scheme of inclusion of a starter is shown on fig. 9.26.Если there is no special kontrolno-test bed of model 532М, the starter is clamped in a vice and connect to the battery (a starter clip connect through the index of a current with плюсовым, and the case of a starter to a minus conclusion of the battery). Wires are applied To connection of a starter with the battery by section not less than 25-35 мм2. The Current strength and number of turns of an anchor at test idling measure no more than through 30 with the ambassador of inclusion of a starter.
The starter is considered passed test if at pressure 12 In it consumes a current no more than 85 And and develops frequency of rotation not less than 4000 mines-1.
At hard rotation of an anchor which is usually caused by warps as a result of wrong assemblage of a starter, or задевания anchors for poles, or short circuits between coils, the starter consumes a current большей forces, and turns develops less than the specified. Small force of a consumed current and the lowered number of turns at normal pressure on starter clips testify to bad contact in connections of wires or about an insufficient tension of springs of brushes.
For starter check at full braking on a drive gear wheel fix the lever connected to a dynamometer. It is better to use a hydraulic dynamometer. The brake moment of M of a starter is defined under the formula:
M = L x Р,
Where L — length of the lever m; Р — the dynamometer indication, kg.
In order to avoid an overheat of a starter test should be spent during short time. If at the braked gear wheel the anchor rotates, the drive needs to be replaced.
At check it is necessary to be careful, as at the moment of starter inclusion there will be a strong jerk of the lever strengthened on a gear wheel.
The serviceable starter at a food from completely charged battery consumes a current no more than 550 And at pressure not less than 8 In and develops the moment 20,0 Нм (2,0 кгсм). If the consumed current above 550 And, and the brake moment more low 20,0 Нм (2,0 кгсм), specifies it in malfunction of a winding of excitation. If the size of the brake moment and force of a consumed current below normal, at normal pressure on starter clips specifies it in bad electric contacts of a starter or a weak tension of springs of brushes. The lowered pressure on starter clips — less than 8,0 In — specifies in bad contacts in wires or on malfunction of the battery.
The additional relay of a starter
The additional relay 711.3747-02 starters serves for current strength reduction in a chain of the switch of a starter during its work.

Technical characteristics of the additional relay of a starter
Rated voltage, В.... 12
Pressure of inclusion, In no more..... 8
Pressure of deenergizing, In no more..... 4


Fig. 9.27. The scheme of inclusion of the additional relay of a starter for check and adjustment: 1 — the storage battery; 2 — a rheostat; 3 — a control lamp; 4 — the relay; 5 — the voltmeter; 6 — the switch




Control check of a condition of the relay is made under the scheme specified in fig. 9.27. After connection of devices under this scheme include the switch 6, by means of a cursor of the resistor 2 establish pressure on the voltmeter 5 within 1—2 V.Zatem smooth movement of a cursor increase pressure till the moment of inclusion of the relay 4 (the control lamp 3 thus should light up). The voltmeter indication at which the lamp was lighted, corresponds to pressure of inclusion of the relay. Movement of a cursor of the resistor in an opposite side reduce pressure on a winding of the relay to its deenergizing. The voltmeter indication at which the lamp will go out, corresponds to pressure of deenergizing of the relay.
The relay is not subject to repair, at refusal it is necessary to replace it with the new