GAS a 2705/gazelleГАЗ-2705, ГАЗ-2705 "Kombi"
+ 1. Car nameplate data
2. Specifications and characteristics of cars
3. Controls and devices
- 4. The engine
+ Engines ZMZ-4025,-4026
- Engines UMZ-4215S *, УМЗ-42150*
Head of cylinders
The krivoshipno-shatunnyj mechanism
The gazoraspredelitelnyj mechanism
Ventilation system картера, a depression regulator
The power supply system
System рециркуляции the fulfilled gases
System of release of the fulfilled gases
Diagnostics of a technical condition of the engine. Possible malfunctions of the engine
+ Engines ZMZ-4061, ЗМЗ-4063
+ 5. Transmission
+ 6. A running gear
+ 7. A steering
+ 8. Brake system
+ 9. An electric equipment
+ 10. A car body
+ 11. Car maintenance service
"Gazelle" Gas-2705>> The engine>> Engines UMZ-4215S *, УМЗ-42150*>> Engine repair
The basis for dismantling and engine repair are: falling of capacity of the engine, reduction of pressure of oil, sharp increase in the expense of oil (from above 450 г on 100 km of run), дымление the engine, the raised expense of fuel, compression fall in cylinders, and also noise and knocks.
At engine dismantling carefully check possibility of the further application of its each detail or necessity of its replacement by the new. Criteria according to possibility of further use of details are resulted in tab. 4.8.
Table 4.8. Maximum permissible deterioration of the basic interfaced details of engine UMZ-4215S
Working capacity of the engine can be restored replacement of the worn out details new the nominal size or restoration of the worn out details and application of the new details of the repair size interfaced to them.
For these purposes pistons, piston rings, loose leaves шатунных and radical bearings of a cranked shaft, a saddle of inlet and final valves, the plug of a camshaft and a number of other details and complete sets of the repair sizes are issued. The list of details and complete sets nominal and is resulted the repair sizes in tab. 4.9.
Table 4.9. Details and complete sets nominal and the repair sizes of engine UMZ-4215S
Sizes of backlashes and tightnesses in the engine
Reduction or increase in backlashes against the recommended worsens conditions of greasing of rubbing surfaces and accelerates deterioration. Reduction of tightnesses in motionless (прессовых) landings also is extremely undesirable. For such details as directing plugs and plug-in saddles of final valves, reduction of tightnesses worsens transfer of heat from these details to walls of a head of the block of cylinders. At engine repair use given tab. 4.10.
Removal and engine installation
Works on removal and installation of engines UMZ-4215S basically are similar specified for engines ZMZ-4025,-4026, considered in the present management.
Dismantling and engine assemblage
Before dismantling carefully clear the engine of a dirt and oil.
At an individual method of repair of the engine of a detail, suitable to the further work, establish on former places where they were earned extra.
For maintenance of it pistons, piston rings, rods, piston fingers, loose leaves, valves, bars, коромысла and pushers at removal are marked by any of the ways, not causing damage (кернением, надписыванием, a paint, an attachment of labels, etc.).
At repair any kind it is impossible разукомплектовывать covers of rods with rods, to rearrange картер couplings and covers of radical bearings from one engine on another or to interchange the position of covers of average radical bearings in one block as these details are processed in common.
At replacement картера couplings check up соосность an aperture serving for a centering of a transmission, with an axis of a cranked shaft, and also perpendicularity of a back end face картера couplings concerning an axis of a cranked shaft (see
Fig. 4.55 both 4.56 and the text to them).
Details and complete sets nominal and the repair sizes of engine UMZ-4215S are given in tab. 4.9, and the sizes of interfaced details — in tab. 4.10.
The prepared operations before assemblage of engines UMZ-4215 the same, as before assemblage of engines ZMZ-4025, ЗМЗ-4026.
Repair of the block of cylinders
Repair of the worn out details (or their steam) is carried out by their restoration or replacement that allows to repair the block of cylinders repolishing or replacement of sleeves, replacement of the worn out plugs of a camshaft semiprocessed, with their subsequent processing under the demanded size, replacement of loose leaves of radical bearings of a cranked shaft. Restoration of working capacity of interface «an aperture of the block of cylinders — a pusher» because of their insignificant deterioration is reduced to replacement of pushers.
Repair and replacement of sleeves of the block of cylinders
It is necessary to consider as as much as possible admissible deterioration of sleeves of cylinders increase in their diameter at 0,3 mm. In the presence of such deterioration выпрессовать a sleeve from the block of cylinders by means of a stripper 1 (fig. 4.94) and to chisel till next repair size of the piston (tab. 4.10 see) with the admission on processing of +0,06 mm.
Not to clamp at processing a sleeve in кулачковый a cartridge as it will lead to deformation of a sleeve and distortion of its sizes.
To fix a sleeve in the adaptation representing the plug with landing corbels in diameter of 100 and 108 mm. A sleeve to insert into the plug against the stop in the top fillet which to clamp an unprofitable ring in an axial direction. After processing the mirror of the cylinder of a sleeve should have following deviations:
- Ovality and конусность — no more than 0,01 mm, and большее the cone basis should settle down in the bottom part of a sleeve;
- бочкообразность and корсетность — no more than 0,08 mm;
- Palpation of a mirror of the cylinder concerning landing corbels in diameter of 100 and 108 mm — no more than 0,01 mm.
After запрессовки sleeves in the block of cylinders to check up size выступания the top end face of a sleeve over the top plane of the block (fig. 4.95). The size выступания should be 0,005 0,055 mm.
At insufficient выступании (less than 0,005 mm) the lining of a head of the block can be punched; besides, the cooling liquid inevitably gets to the combustion chamber because of insufficient consolidation of the top corbel of a sleeve with the block of cylinders. At size check выступания a sleeve end face over the block it is necessary to remove a rubber sealing ring from a sleeve.
That sleeves did not drop out of nests in the block at repair, to fix them by means of washers 2 and the plugs 3 which are put on hairpins of fastening of a head of the block of cylinders, as is shown in fig. 4.96.
The sleeves of cylinders chiseled under the third repair size of the piston, after deterioration to replace new.
Repair of a head of the block of cylinders
To the basic defects of a head of the block of cylinders which can be eliminated repair, concern: коробление planes прилегания to the block of cylinders, deterioration grew grey and directing plugs of valves.
Неплоскостность surfaces of the head adjoining to the block, at its check on a control plate щупом should not be more than 0,05 mm. Insignificant коробление heads (to 0,3 mm) to eliminate шабровкой planes on a paint. At короблении, exceeding 0,3 mm, a head are necessary for grinding.
Replacement of piston rings
Piston rings (fig. 4.97) replace through 70 000-90 000 km of run (depending on car service conditions).
Piston rings establish on three on each piston: two компрессионных and one маслосъемное. Kompressionnye rings are cast from special pig-iron. The external surface top компрессионного rings is covered by porous chrome, and the surface of the second компрессионного rings should be covered by tin or фосфатирована.
On both internal cylindrical surfaces компрессионных rings are provided проточки for which account of a ring after their installation into position are a little unscrewed. It improves and accelerates to their extra earnings to cylinders. Rings are necessary for establishing on the piston проточками upwards, towards the bottom.
The maslosemnoe ring — compound, has two ring disks, radial and axial dilators. The external surface of disks маслосъемных rings is covered by firm chrome.
The lock of rings of a straight line.
Piston rings of the repair sizes (tab. 4.9 see) differ from rings of the nominal sizes only in external diameter.
Rings of the repair size can be established in the worn out cylinders with the next smaller repair size by подпиливания their joints before backlash reception in the lock of 0,3-0,5 mm.
Backlash check in a ring joint to make, as is shown in fig. 4.63. To перешлифованным to cylinders to adjust rings by the top part, and to worn out — by the bottom part of the cylinder (within a course of piston rings). At подгоне rings to establish in the cylinder in working position, i.e. In a plane, a perpendicular axis of the cylinder for what to advance it in the cylinder by means of a piston head. Planes of joints at the compressed ring should be parallel.
To remove and establish rings on the piston by means of the adaptation (fig. 4.52 see) models 55-1122.
After adjustment of rings on cylinders to check up a backlash between rings and flutes in the piston (fig. 4.64 see) which should be: for top компрессионного rings — 0,050—0,082 mm, for bottom компрессионного — 0,035 0,067 mm. At the big backlashes replacement only piston rings will not exclude the raised expense of oil because of intensive swapping by its rings in space over the piston. In this case simultaneously with replacement of rings it is necessary to replace and pistons («Replacement of pistons» see). Simultaneous replacement of piston rings and pistons sharply reduces the oil expense.
At replacement only piston rings without replacement of pistons to remove a deposit from the bottoms of pistons, from ring flutes in a head of the piston and маслоотводящих the apertures located in flutes for маслосъемных of rings. A deposit from flutes to delete cautiously not to damage their lateral surfaces, by means of the adaptation (fig. 4.59 see).
From маслоотводящих apertures a deposit to delete a drill in diameter of 3 mm.
At use new or перешлифованных under the repair size of sleeves of cylinders it is necessary, that top компрессионное the ring had the chromeplated covering, and other rings were лужеными or фосфатированными. If the sleeve is not under repair, and piston rings all of them should be лужеными or фосфатированными as to the worn out sleeve the chromeplated ring is earned extra very badly vary only.
Before installation of pistons in cylinders to dissolve joints of piston rings at an angle 120 ° to each other. After replacement of piston rings in the first 1000 km of run not to exceed speed of 45-50 km/h.
Replacement of pistons
To replace pistons follows at deterioration of a flute of the top piston ring or a piston skirt. In partially worn out cylinders to establish pistons of the same size (nominal or repair) what the pistons earlier working in the given engine had. However it is desirable to pick up the complete set большего the size of pistons for backlash reduction between a skirt of the piston and a cylinder mirror.
In this case a backlash between a skirt of the piston and a cylinder mirror to check up in bottom, the least worn out, cylinder parts.
Not to suppose backlash reduction in this part of the cylinder less than 0,02 mm.
In spare parts pistons together with the piston fingers picked up to them and lock rings (tab. 4.9 see) are delivered.
For selection pistons of the nominal size sort by external diameter of a skirt. On the bottoms of pistons letter designations of dimensional group which are specified in tab. 4.11 are beaten out.
Table 4.11. Dimensional groups of pistons
On pistons of the repair sizes the size of their diameter is beaten out also.
Except selection of pistons to cylinder sleeves on diameter of a skirt, them select also for weight. The difference in weight between the most easy and heaviest piston for one engine should not exceed 4
At assemblage pistons to establish in sleeves of the same group.
Pistons in cylinders to establish by means of the adaptation of model 59-85 shown on fig. 4.65.
At installation of pistons in cylinders the label "before", cast on the piston, should be turned to a forward part of the engine, on the piston with a cutting skirt a label "back" — aside картера couplings.
On all pistons of the repair sizes of an aperture in lugs under a piston finger become the nominal size with breakdown on groups. If necessary these apertures are chiseled or developed till next repair size with the admission. Конусность and ovality of an aperture — no more than 0,0025 mm. At processing to provide perpendicularity of an axis of an aperture to a piston axis, a permissible deviation — no more than 0,04 mm at length of 100 mm.
Repair of rods
Repair of rods is reduced to replacement of the plug of the top head and its subsequent processing under a piston finger of the nominal size or to processing of the plug available in a rod under a finger of the repair size.
In spare parts the plugs of one size made of bronze tape ОЦС4-4-2,5 in the thickness 1 mm are delivered.
At запрессовке the new plug in a rod to provide aperture coincidence in the plug with an aperture in the top head of a rod. Apertures serve for greasing giving to a piston finger.
After запрессовки plugs to condense its internal surface with a smooth brooch till the diameter of 24,3+0,045 mm, and then to develop or chisel under the nominal or repair size with the mm admission .
For example, the plug to develop or chisel under a finger of the nominal size till the diameter of 25 mm or under a finger of the repair size till the diameter of 25,20 mm.
The distance between axes of apertures of the bottom and top heads of a rod should be (168±0,05) mm; admissible непараллельность axes in two mutually perpendicular planes at length of 100 mm should be no more than 0,04 mm; ovality and конусность should not exceed 0,005 mm. To sustain the specified sizes and admissions, it is necessary to develop the plug of the top head of a rod in the conductor.
After expansion to make aperture operational development on a special grinding head, having control over a rod (fig. 4.98). Grinding бруски heads to establish the micrometric screw for the demanded repair size.
Rods, apertures under loose leaves in which bottom head have ovality more than 0,05 mm, are subject to replacement.
Replacement and repair of piston fingers
The repair sizes of piston fingers and number of complete sets are resulted in tab. 4.9.
The piston fingers increased on diameter on 0,08 mm are applied to replacement of piston fingers without preliminary processing of apertures in the piston and in the top head of a rod. Application of the fingers increased by 0,12 mm and 0,20 mm, demands preliminary processing of apertures in lugs of the piston and in the top head of a rod as it is described above (see «Replacement of pistons» and «Repair of rods»).
Before выпрессовкой a piston finger take from the piston lock rings of a piston finger flat-nose pliers, as is shown in fig. 4.99. Выпрессовку and запрессовку a finger to make on adaptations, as is shown in fig. 4.53 and 4.62. Before выпрессовкой a finger to heat up the piston in hot water to 70 ° With.
Repair of piston fingers consists in their repolishing since the big repair sizes on smaller or in chromium plating with the subsequent processing under the nominal or repair size.
The fingers having breaks, выкрашивания and cracks of any size and an arrangement, and also overheat traces (colours побежалости), are not subject to repair.
Assemblage of shatunno-piston group
Piston finger to the top head of a rod to select with a backlash of 0,0045 0,0095 mm. At a normal room temperature the finger should move smoothly in an aperture of the top head of a rod from effort of a thumb of a hand (fig. 4.61 see). The piston finger should be thus slightly greased маловязким by oil.
Finger to establish in the piston with a tightness of 0,0025-0,0075 mm. Almost piston finger steals up so that at a normal room temperature (20 °) it did not enter into the piston from effort of a hand, and at piston heating in hot water to temperature 70 ° With would enter into it freely. Therefore before assemblage the piston to heat up in hot water to 70 ° S.Zapressovka of a finger without preliminary heating of the piston will lead to damage of a surface of apertures in piston lugs, and also to deformation of the piston.
For maintenance of correct balancing of the engine the difference in weight of the pistons established in the engine in gathering with rods should not exceed 8
Lock rings of a piston finger should sit in the flutes with a small tightness.
Piston rings to establish on the piston as it is specified in subsection «Replacement of piston rings».
Considering complexity of selection of a piston finger to the piston and a rod (for maintenance of nominal landings), pistons are delivered in spare parts in gathering with a piston finger, lock and piston rings.
Repair of a cranked shaft
Repair of a cranked shaft consists in repolishing radical and шатунных necks under the next repair size.
The repair sizes шатунных and radical necks are defined by the sizes of complete sets шатунных and the radical loose leaves delivered in spare parts which are resulted in tab. 4.9.
Radial backlashes in шатунных and radical bearings of a cranked shaft should be 0,020—0,049 mm and 0,020—0,066 mm accordingly. Repolishing of necks to make with the admission of 0,013 mm.
If the sizes шатунных and radical necks do not coincide among themselves, them it is necessary перешлифовать under one repair size.
Facets and apertures of the forward and back ends of a cranked shaft are not suitable for installation in the grinding machine tool. For this purpose to make the demountable centres-glasses. The forward centre напрессовывать on a neck in diameter of 38 mm, and back to align on external diameter of a flange (diameter of 122 mm) a shaft and крепить to it bolts. At manufacturing of the transitive centres to provide концентричность центрового and adjusting apertures. Without meeting this condition, it is impossible to provide necessary концентричности flywheel and gear wheel seats to axes of radical necks. At polishing шатунных necks to establish a shaft on the additional centres, coaxial axes шатунных necks. For this purpose it is possible to use the centres-glasses, having provided on them flanges with two additional центровыми apertures, отстоящими from an average aperture on (46±0,05) mm.
For the forward end it is better to make the new centre-flange which is established on a neck in diameter of 40 mm (on шпонке) and in addition fastens a bolt (ratchet) screwed in a carving aperture.
Before polishing of necks to deepen facets on edges of oil channels so that their width after removal of all allowance on grinding was 0,84,2 mm. To do it with the help наждачного a stone with a corner at top 60—90 °, resulted in rotation by an electrodrill.
At polishing шатунных necks it is not necessary to concern with grinding circle of lateral surfaces of necks not to break an axial backlash of rods. Transition radius to a lateral surface to maintain 3,5 mm. Polishing to make plentiful cooling эмульсией.
In the course of repolishing next sizes should be sustained:
- Distance between axes radical and шатунных necks — (46±0,05) mm;
- конусообразность, бочкообразность, седлообразность, ovality and a facet of necks — no more than 0,005 mm;
- Angular arrangement шатунных necks — ±0 ° 10 ';
- непараллельность axes шатунных necks with an axis of radical necks — no more than 0,012 mm on all length шатунной necks;
- Palpation (at shaft installation by extreme radical necks on prisms) average radical necks — no more than 0,02 mm, necks under a distributive gear wheel — to 0,03 mm, and necks under a nave of a pulley and a back epiploon — to 0,04 mm.
After polishing of necks to wash out a cranked shaft, and oil channels to clear of an abrasive and resinous adjournment. Stoppers грязеуловителей thus to turn out. After clearing грязеуловителей and channels again to wrap stoppers into place and закернить each of them from spontaneous вывертывания.
To clear oil channels also at operational repair of the engine when the cranked shaft is taken out from the block.
After repair the cranked shaft gathers with the same flywheel and coupling which stood before repair.
At installation it is necessary to centre a conducted disk in relation to an axis of a cranked shaft. For this purpose in шлицевое an aperture of a conducted disk to insert special оправку (fig. 4.100) so that its end has entered into an aperture of the ball bearing in cranked to a shaft. To tighten fastening bolts to a flywheel follows in regular intervals in order to avoid breakage of bolts.
Before installation on the engine a cranked shaft with coupling in gathering dynamically отбалансировать on the special machine tool. Preliminary to centre a conducted disk of coupling by means of a shaft of a transmission or special оправки.
Disbalance to eliminate metal drilling in a flywheel rim on radius of 158 mm a drill in diameter of 12 mm. Depth of drilling should not exceed 12 mm. An admissible disbalance — no more than 70 г·см.
Replacement of loose leaves radical and шатунных bearings of a cranked shaft
In spare parts loose leaves radical and шатунных bearings nominal and seven repair sizes which are resulted in tab. 4.9 are delivered. Loose leaves of the repair sizes differ from loose leaves of the nominal size in the internal diameter reduced on 0,05; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,0; 1,25 and 1,50 mm.
Loose leaves radical and шатунных bearings are replaced without any adjustment.
Depending on deterioration of necks at the first change of loose leaves to apply loose leaves nominal or, as a last resort, the first repair size (reduced by 0,05 mm).
Loose leaves of the second and the next repair sizes to establish in the engine only after repolishing of necks of a cranked shaft.
If as a result of repeated repolishings diameters of necks of a cranked shaft are reduced so that loose leaves of last repair size will appear unsuitable for it it is necessary to collect the engine with new shaft.
The radial backlash in шатунных and radical bearings of a cranked shaft should be according to 0,020 0,049 mm and 0,020—0,066 mm.
Check of size of radial backlashes to make by means of a set control щупов, executed of a copper foil in the thickness 0,025; 0,05; 0,075 and 0,1 mm cut in the form of strips in width of 6-7 mm and length of a bit less width of the loose leaf. Edges щупов should be protected for an exception of damage of a surface of the loose leaf.
Check of a radial backlash to make in a following order:
- To remove from a checked neck a cover with the loose leaf and to put across the loose leaf preliminary oiled control щуп in the thickness of 0,025 mm;
- To establish into place a cover with the loose leaf and to tighten bolts, thus bolts of other covers should be released;
- To turn a cranked shaft a hand on a corner no more than on 60-90 ° in order to avoid damage of a surface of the loose leaf щупом.
If the shaft is turned too easily, the backlash more than 0,025 mm means. In this case to repeat check щупами 0,05; 0,075 mm etc. Until to turn a cranked shaft it becomes impossible.
The thickness щупа at which the shaft is turned with notable effort, is considered to equal actual size of a backlash between the loose leaf and a neck of a cranked shaft.
At replacement of loose leaves to observe the following:
- Loose leaves to replace without подгоночных operations;
- To watch, that fixing ledges on joints of loose leaves freely (from effort of a hand) entered into grooves in shaft beds;
- Simultaneously with replacement of loose leaves to clear грязеуловители in шатунных necks.
Replacement шатунных loose leaves can be made, without removing the engine from the car chassis. Replacement of radical loose leaves to make on the engine which has been removed from the car.
After replacement of loose leaves обкатать the engine (Obkatka of the engine after repair »see«).
If at replacement of loose leaves the engine did not act in film from the car at the first 1000 km of run speed should not exceed 50 km/h.
Simultaneously with replacement of loose leaves to check an axial backlash in the persistent bearing of a cranked shaft which should be 0,075—0,175 mm. If an axial backlash more than 0,175 mm to replace washers 8 (fig. 4.88 see) and 9 new. The forward washer is made four sizes on a thickness: 2,350—2,375; 2,375—2,400; 2,400—2,425; 2,425—2,450 mm.
For backlash check in the persistent bearing to put a screw-driver (fig. 4.101) between the first crank of a shaft and a forward wall of the block and to wring out a shaft to a back end face of the engine. Then щупом to define a backlash between an end face of a back washer of the persistent bearing and a plane бурта the first radical neck.
Before installation of loose leaves to check up соосность radical necks of a cranked shaft. For this purpose to establish a cranked shaft in the centres and to check up position of axes of radical necks under indicator indications.
The forward and back ends of a cranked shaft are condensed with epiploons (fig. 4.88 and 4.89 see).
Repair of a camshaft and replacement of its plugs
Restoration of necessary backlashes in camshaft plugs to make repolishing of basic necks of a shaft, reducing their size no more than by 0,75 mm, and replacement of the worn out plugs semiprocessed with the subsequent them расточкой towards the sizes перешлифованных necks.
Before repolishing of necks of a camshaft to deepen flutes on the first and last necks on size of reduction of diameter of these necks that after repolishing of necks to provide greasing receipt to distributive gear wheels and to an axis коромысел. Polishing of necks spend in the centres with the admission of 0,02 mm. After neck polishing polish.
Выпрессовку and запрессовку plugs it is more convenient to do by means of carving hairpins (the corresponding length) with nuts and подкладными washers.
The semiprocessed plugs of a camshaft delivered in spare parts by the complete set on one engine, have the sizes of external diameter same, as well as plugs of the nominal size, therefore they запрессовываются in apertures of the block without preliminary processing.
For maintenance of a sufficient thickness of a layer баббита (an antifrictional material) the size of repair reduction of internal diameter of all plugs should be identical.
At запрессовке plugs to watch coincidence of their lateral apertures to oil channels in the block. Plugs to chisel, reducing diameter of each subsequent plug, beginning from a forward end face of the block, on 1 mm. Расточку to conduct with the mm admission that backlashes in plugs after shaft installation corresponded to given tab. 4.10.
At расточке plugs to sustain distance between axes of apertures under cranked and distributive shaft (118±0,025) mm. This size to check at a forward end face of the block. The deviation from соосности apertures in plugs should be no more than 0,04 mm, and the deviation from parallelism of cranked and distributive shaft should be no more than 0,04 mm on all length of the block. To provide соосность plugs in the set limits, to process them simultaneously by means of long and enough rigid борштанги with насаженными on it on number of support cutters or development. To establish борштангу, being based concerning apertures for loose leaves of radical bearings.
Camshaft cams at insignificant deterioration and teases to smooth out a grinding skin: at first coarse-grained, and then fine-grained. Thus the grinding skin should cover not less than half of profile of a cam and have some tension that will provide the least distortion of a profile of a cam.
At deterioration of cams on height more than with 0,5 mm a camshaft to replace new.
Curvature of a camshaft to check the indicator on napes (on a cylindrical surface) inlet and final cams of the second and third cylinders. Thus a shaft to establish in the centres. If shaft palpation exceeds 0,03 mm a shaft to correct or replace.
Restoration of tightness of valves and replacement of plugs of valves
Infringement of tightness of valves at correct thermal backlashes between cores of valves and коромыслами, and also at serviceable work of the carburettor and ignition system is found out on characteristic claps from the muffler and the carburettor. The engine thus works with faults and does not develop a total power.
Restoration of tightness of valves to carry out grinding in of working facets of valves to their saddles. At presence on working facets of valves and saddles of bowls, ring developments or рисок which cannot be deduced grinding in, прошлифовать facets with the subsequent grinding in of valves to saddles. Valves with the jarred on heads to replace.
Facets of valves to grind in a pneumatic or electric drill of model 2213, 2447 ГАРО or manually by means of rotation. Grinding in to make vozvratno-rotary motions at which the valve is turned in one party a little more than in another. For the period of grinding in under the valve to establish a squeezing spring with small elasticity. Internal diameter of a spring should be about 10 mm. The spring should raise some the valve over a saddle, and by easy pressing the valve should sit down on a saddle. Communication of the tool with the valve is carried out rubber присосом, as is shown in fig. 4.102. For the best coupling присоса with the valve of their surface should be dry and pure.
For grinding in acceleration to use притирочную the paste made of one part of a micropowder of mark М20 and two parts of engine oil. A mix before application carefully to mix. Grinding in to conduct before occurrence on working surfaces of a saddle and a plate of the valve of a uniform matte facet on all circle. By the grinding in end to reduce the micropowder maintenance in притирочной to paste. To finish grinding in on one pure oil. Instead of притирочной pastes it is possible to use наждачный a powder № 00, mixed with engine oil.
It is recommended to apply grinding machine tools of type Р-108 to polishing of working facets of valves or OPR-1841 ГАРО. Thus a valve core to clamp in an aligning cartridge of the machine tool established at an angle 44 ° 30 ' to a working surface of a grinding stone. Reduction on 30 ' an angle of slope of a working facet of a head of the valve in comparison with a corner of a facet of saddles accelerates to extra earnings and improves tightness of valves. At polishing to remove from a facet of a head of the valve a metal minimum quantity. The height of a cylindrical corbel of a working facet of a head of the valve after polishing should be not less than 0,7 mm, and соосность a working facet concerning a core — within 0,03 mm of the general indications of the indicator. Palpation of a core of the valve — no more than 0,02 mm. Valves with the big palpation to replace new. Not перешлифовывать valve cores for the smaller size as there will be a necessity for manufacturing new сухариков plates клапанных springs.
Facets of saddles to grind at an angle 45 ° it is coaxial to an aperture in the plug. The width of a facet should be 1,6—2,4 mm. It is recommended to apply the adaptation represented on fig. 4.103 to polishing of saddles. A saddle to grind without притирочной pastes or oils until the stone not begins to process all working surface.
After rough processing to replace a stone on fine-grained and to make fair polishing of a saddle. Palpation of a facet concerning an axis of an aperture of the plug of the valve should not exceed 0,03 mm. The worn out saddles to replace new. In spare parts the saddles of valves having external diameter more nominal on 0,25 mm are delivered. The worn out saddles to take from a head by means of a vertical drill.
After extraction of saddles to chisel in a head of a nest for the final valve till the diameter of 38,75+0,025 mm and for the inlet valve — till the diameter of 49,25+0,025 mm. Before запрессовкой saddles to heat up a head of the block of cylinders to temperature 170 ° With, and saddles to cool an artificial ice. Запрессовку to make quickly, without giving possibility saddles to heat up. The cooled down head densely covers saddles. For increase in durability of landing of saddles зачеканить them on external diameter by means of flat оправки, achieving filling of a facet of a saddle. Then прошлифовать till the demanded sizes and to grind in.
If deterioration of a core of the valve and the directing plug is so great that the backlash in their joint exceeds 0,25 mm tightness of the valve restores only after replacement of the valve and its plug. In spare parts valves only the nominal sizes, and directing plugs — with the internal diameter reduced by 0,3 mm, for their subsequent development under the definitive size after запрессовки in a head of the block of cylinders are delivered.
Zapressovannye plugs to develop till the diameter of 9+0,022 mm. The core of the inlet valve has diameter of 9 mm, final — 9 mm, hence, backlashes between cores of inlet and final valves and plugs should be accordingly equal 0,050 0,097 mm and 0,075—0,117 mm.
The worn out directing plugs выпрессовывать from a head of the block of cylinders with the help выколотки (fig. 4.104).
The new plug запрессовывать from outside коромысел by means of the same выколотки against the stop in the lock ring which is available on the plug. Thus a head of the block of cylinders to heat up to temperature 170 ° With, and the plug to cool an artificial ice.
After replacement of plugs of valves to make polishing of saddles (being aligned on apertures in plugs) and then to grind in to them valves. After polishing of saddles and grinding in of valves all channels and places where the abrasive could get, carefully wash out and blow compressed air.
Plugs of valves — ceramic-metal, porous. After definitive processing and washing to impregnate with their oil. For this purpose into each plug to insert at some o'clock impregnated in веретенном oil a felt match. Cores of valves before assemblage to grease with a thin layer of the mix prepared from seven parts of an oil kolloidno-graphitic preparation and three parts of engine oil.
Replacement клапанных springs
Possible malfunctions клапанных the springs, appearing while in service, can be: elasticity reduction, обломы or cracks on coils.
Elasticity клапанных springs to check at dismantling клапанного the mechanism. The effort necessary for compression new клапанной of a spring to 46 mm on height, should be 267—310 Н (27,3 31,7 кгс), and to 37 mm — 686—784 Н (70—80 кгс). If effort of compression of a spring to 46 mm on height less than 235 Н (24 кгс), and to 37 mm — less than 558,6 Н (57 кгс) such spring to replace new.
Springs with regional ohms, cracks and corrosion traces to replace new.
Replacement of pushers
Directing apertures in the block under pushers wear out slightly, therefore the nominal backlash in this interface is restored by replacement of the worn out pushers with the new. In spare parts pushers only are delivered the nominal size.
Pushers steal up to apertures with a backlash of 0,040-0,015 mm. Pushers depending on the size of external diameter are broken on two groups and marked by a marking-off: in figure 1 — at diameter of 25 mm and figure 2 — at diameter of 25 mm. Correctly picked up pusher greased with liquid mineral oil, should fall smoothly under own weight to a nest of the block and easily be turned in it.
The pushers having at end faces of plates beam teases, deterioration or выкрашивание a working surface to replace new.
Repair of a drive of the oil pump and the ignition distributor
The platen worn out on diameter 10 (fig. 4.105) a distributor drive is restored by chromium plating with the subsequent polishing till the diameter of 13-0,011 mm.
Gear wheel 5 drives of the oil pump and the ignition gauge-distributor, having обломы, выкрашивания or considerable developments of a surface of teeths, and also deterioration of an aperture under a pin till the size more than 4,2 mm to replace new.
For replacement of the platen or a gear wheel of a drive of the gauge-distributor to remove a gear wheel from the platen, having taken out preliminary a pin of a gear wheel with the help a small beard in diameter of 3 mm. At removal of a gear wheel from the platen the case 11 drives to establish the top end face on a support with an aperture in it for pass of the platen of a drive to gathering with the persistent plug. Drive assemblage make taking into account the following:
- At platen installation (in gathering with the persistent plug) in the case of a drive of the gauge-distributor to grease the platen with engine oil;
- Having connected the platen 10 drives to the intermediate platen-plate 3 drives and having put on a persistent washer 7, напрессовать a gear wheel the platen, having sustained a backlash «Г» (fig. 4.106) between a persistent washer and a gear wheel of a drive of 0,25-0,15 mm.
Thus it is necessary, that an axis 0—0 passing through the middle of hollows between two teeths at an end face, has been displaced concerning axis В-В шлица the platen on 5°30±1 °;
- Aperture in a gear wheel and the platen under a pin to drill in diameter (4±0,037) mm, maintaining distance from an axis of an aperture to a gear wheel end face (18,8±0,15) mm.
At drilling of an aperture and at backlash installation between a persistent washer and a gear wheel the platen of a drive of the gauge-distributor in gathering with the persistent plug should be pressed to the drive case in a direction of the oil pump. The pin connecting the platen with a gear wheel, should be in diameter in 4-0,025 length 22 mm.
In the collected drive of the gauge-distributor its platen should be turned freely by hand.
Repair of the oil pump
At the big deterioration of details of the oil pump pressure in lubricant system goes down and there is a noise.
At pump dismantling to check up elasticity of a spring редукционного the valve. Elasticity of a spring is considered sufficient if for its compression to 24 mm on height it is necessary to make effort (54±2,45) Н (5,5±0,25) кгс.
Repair of the oil pump usually consists in polishing of end faces of covers, replacement of gear wheels and linings.
At pump dismantling preliminary to drill расклепанную a head of a pin of fastening of the plug 2 (fig. 4.105 see) on its platen 1, to beat out a pin, to remove the plug and a pump cover. After that to take out the pump platen together with a leading gear wheel from the case towards its cover.
In case of dismantling of a leading gear wheel and the platen a pin to drill a drill in diameter of 3 mm.
Leading and conducted gear wheels with выкрошенными teeths, and also with appreciable developments of a surface of teeths to replace new. Established in the pump case leading and conducted gear wheels should be turned easily by hand for the leading platen.
If on an internal plane of a cover is available considerable (more than 0,05 mm) development from end faces of gear wheels, it follows прошлифовать.
Between a cover, a plate and the pump case of 0,3-0,4 mm are established паронитовые linings in the thickness.
Application of shellac, paint or others герметизирующих substances at lining installation, and also installation of thicker lining are not supposed, as it causes reduction of giving of the pump.
Pump assemblage to make taking into account the following:
- напрессовать on the leading platen the plug, having sustained the size between an end face of the leading platen and an end face of the plug of 8 mm (fig. 4.107). Thus the backlash between the case of the pump and other end face of the plug should be not less than 0,5 mm;
- To drill in the leading platen and in the plug an aperture in diameter of 4 mm, maintaining the size (20±0,25) mm.
- раззенковать an aperture from both parties on depth of 0,5 mm at an angle 90 °, запрессовать in it a pin in diameter of 4-0,048 mm and length 19 mm and расклепать it from two parties.
If by means of repair it is impossible to restore working capacity of the pump, it is necessary to replace its new.
Installation of a drive of the oil pump and the ignition gauge-distributor on the block to make in a following order:
- To turn out a candle of the first cylinder;
- To establish in an aperture for a candle компрессометр and to turn the starting handle a cranked shaft prior to the beginning of arrow movement. It will occur in the beginning of a step of compression in the first cylinder. It is possible to stop up an aperture for a candle paper пыжом or a hand thumb. In this case at a compression step will jump out пыж or the air outlet from under a finger will be felt;
- Having convinced that compression has begun, cautiously to turn a cranked shaft before aperture coincidence on ободке a pulley of a cranked shaft with the index (pin) on a cover of distributive gear wheels;
- To turn the drive platen that the cut at its end face for a distributor thorn has been located how it is specified in fig. 4.105, and the platen of the oil pump by means of a screw-driver to turn in the position specified in fig. 4.105 In;
- Cautiously, without touching a gear wheel block walls, to insert a drive into the block. After installation of a drive to the place of its platen should occupy the position specified in fig. 4.105 And.
For deterioration reduction in шарнирных drive connections to establish the pump to coaxially aperture for a drive. For this purpose use оправкой (fig. 4.108), densely entering into an aperture for a drive in the block and having a cylindrical shaft in diameter of 13 mm. The pump to centre on a shaft оправки and to fix in this position.
Repair of separate knots and engine systems
Repair of the pump of system of cooling, repair of knots of power supply systems is similar to works for engines ZMZ-4025,-4026, specified in the present management, except for the following:
— Position of a head of the fuel pump at its installation should correspond fig. 4.109