"Gazelle" Gas-2705>> The engine>> Engines ZMZ-4025,-4026>> System of greasing of the engine
System of greasing of the engine — combined: under pressure and разбрызгиванием. Oil under pressure greases radical and шатунные bearings of a cranked shaft, camshaft bearings, persistent bearings of cranked and distributive shaft, plugs коромысел and the top tips of bars of pushers. Other details are greased with the sprayed oil.

Fig. 4.11. The scheme of system of greasing: 1 — a reception branch pipe of the oil pump; 2 — редукционный the valve; 3 — an aperture for oil plum; 4 — an oil highway; 5 — the gauge of the index of pressure of oil; 6 — an aperture for oil giving to gear wheels of a drive of the oil pump; 7 — a screw flute; 8 — a tube for greasing of distributive gear wheels; 9 — a flute on the first neck of a camshaft; 10 — a cover маслозаливной mouths; 11 — a cavity in an axis коромысел; 12 — the channel in a cranked shaft; 13 — a stopper; 14 — перепускной the valve is opened; 15 — перепускной the valve is closed; 16 — a filtering element; 17 — a stopper for sediment plum; 18 — an aperture for разбрызгивания oils; 19 — the gauge of emergency pressure of oil; 20 — the oil pump; 21 — a stopper; 22 — the index of level of oil; 23 — the channel for oil giving to an axis коромысел




Into greasing system enter the oil pump 20 (fig. 4.11) with a reception branch pipe and редукционным the valve (it is established in oil картера), oil channels, the oil filter with перепускным the valve, oil картер, the index of level of oil, a cover маслозаливной mouths, the gauge of the index of pressure of oil, the gauge of a signalling device of emergency pressure of oil. The oil which is taken away by the pump from oil картера, arrives through маслоприемник on channels in the case of the pump and an external tube in the case of the oil filter. Further, having passed through filtering element 16, oil arrives in a cavity of the second partition of the block of cylinders, whence on сверленому to the channel in an oil highway — the longitudinal oil channel 4. From the longitudinal channel oil on inclined channels in block partitions moves on radical bearings of a cranked shaft and camshaft bearings. The oil following from the fifth support of a camshaft in a cavity of the block between shaft and заглушкой, is taken away in картер through a cross-section aperture 3 in a shaft neck.
On шатунные necks oil arrives on channels 12 from radical necks of a cranked shaft. In an axis коромысел oil is brought from the back support of a camshaft having in the middle a ring flute which is informed through channels 23 in the block, a head of cylinders and in the fourth basic rack of an axis коромысел with a cavity 11 in an axis коромысел.
Through apertures in an axis коромысел oil arrives on plugs коромысел and further on channels in коромыслах and adjusting screws on the top tips of bars of pushers.
Oil is brought to gear wheels of a drive of a camshaft on a tube 8, запрессованной in an aperture in a forward end face of the block, connected to a ring flute 9 on the first neck of a camshaft. From the exhaust outlet of a tube having small diameter, the stream of oil directed on teeths of gear wheels is thrown out.
Through the cross-section channel in the first neck of a camshaft oil from the same flute of a neck arrives and on a persistent flange of a camshaft. Gear wheels of a drive of the oil pump are greased with the stream of oil which is thrown out from the channel 6 in block, the camshaft connected to the fourth neck, also having a ring flute. Walls of cylinders are greased with splashes of oil from a stream which are thrown out from an aperture 18 in bottom head of a rod at coincidence of this aperture with the channel in a neck of a cranked shaft, and also the oil following from under bearings of a cranked shaft.
All other details (the valve — its core and an end face, the platen of a drive of the oil pump and the ignition gauge-distributor, camshaft cams) are oiled, following from backlashes in bearings and sprayed by moving details of the engine. Capacity of system of greasing — 6 l. Oil in the engine is filled in through маслозаливную a mouth located on a cover коромысел and closed by a cover with a sealing rubber lining. Oil level is supervised on labels П and "About" on a core of the index of level. Oil level should be supported between labels П and "About".
Pressure in greasing system at average speeds of movement of the car (about 50 km/h) should be 200—400 кПа (2—4 kgs/sm 2). It can raise on not heated-up engine to 450 кПа (4,5 kgs/sm 2) and to fall in hot weather to 150 кПа (1,5 kgs/sm 2). Reduction of pressure of oil at average frequency of rotation more low 100 кПа (1 kgs/sm 2) and at small frequency of rotation of idling — more low 50 кПа (0,5 kgs/sm 2) свидельствует about malfunctions in system of greasing or about excessive deterioration of bearings of cranked and distributive shaft. The further operation of the engine in these conditions should be stopped.
Pressure of oil is defined by the index on a guard of the devices which gauge will screw in the case of the oil filter. Besides, the system is supplied by an alarm lamp of emergency pressure of the oil which gauge is screwed in an aperture in the bottom part of the filter. The alarm lamp is on the panel of devices and is shone by red light at pressure decline in system more low 40—80 кПа (0,4—0,8 kgs/sm 2). To maintain the car with a shone lamp of emergency pressure of oil it is impossible. Only short-term luminescence of a lamp is admissible at small frequency of rotation of idling and at braking. If the system is serviceable, at some increase of frequency of rotation the lamp dies away.
In case of understating or overestimate of pressure of oil from resulted above sizes it is necessary to check up first of all serviceability of gauges and indexes as it is specified in section "Electric equipment".

Fig. 4.12. The oil pump: 1 — a reception branch pipe with a grid; 2 — a cover; 3 — a leading gear wheel; 4 — the case; 5 — the platen; 6 — a conducted gear wheel; 7 — a lining; 8 — a branch pipe lining




The oil pump (fig. 4.12) шестеренчатого type is established in oil картера. The pump is attached by two hairpins to inclined platforms on the third and fourth partitions of the block of cylinders. Accuracy of installation of the pump is provided with two pins-plugs, запрессованными in the block of cylinders. The case of the pump 4 is cast from an aluminium alloy, a gear wheel 3 and 6 have direct teeths and are made from металлокерамики (спеченного металлопорошка). The leading gear wheel 3 is fixed on the platen by 5 pin. On the top end of the platen it is made шестигранное an aperture into which the shaft of a drive of the oil pump enters. The conducted gear wheel 6 freely rotates on an axis, запрессованной in the pump case.
The cover 2 pumps is made of grey pig-iron and fastens to the pump four bolts. Under a cover the cardboard lining of 0,3 mm is put in the thickness.
Маслоприемник and a reception branch pipe of 1 oil pump are executed in the uniform case from an aluminium alloy. On a reception part of a branch pipe завальцована a grid. The branch pipe fastens to the oil pump four bolts together with a cover of the oil pump through паронитовую a lining 8.
Productivity of the oil pump considerably above, than it is required for the engine. The productivity stock is necessary for maintenance of corresponding pressure of oil in system on any power setting. Superfluous oil thus arrives from a delivery cavity of the pump through редукционный the valve back in soaking up cavity. At increase in the expense of oil through backlashes in bearings (if the engine wears out) in system necessary pressure also is supported, but through редукционный the valve in this case back in a reception cavity of the pump passes smaller quantity of oil.

Fig. 4.13. The reduktsionnyj valve: 1 — плунжер; 2 — a spring; 3 — a washer; 4 — шплинт




The reduktsionnyj valve плунжерного type is located in the case of the oil pump. On an end face плунжера 1 (fig. 4.13) operates pressure of oil under which influence плунжер, overcoming effort of a spring 2, moves. At achievement of certain pressure плунжер opens an aperture of the drain channel, passing superfluous oil in a reception cavity of the pump.
The spring редукционного the valve leans against a flat washer 3 and fastens шплинтом 4, passed through apertures in inflow on the pump case.
The reduktsionnyj valve is not regulated; the necessary characteristic on pressure is provided with the geometrical sizes of the case of the pump and the spring characteristic: for compression of a spring till the length of 40 mm the effort within 43,5—48,5 Н (4,35—4,85 кгс) is necessary. In operation it is not supposed to change in any way effort of a spring редукционного the valve.

Fig. 4.14. A drive of the oil pump and the ignition gauge-distributor: 1 — the ignition gauge-distributor; 2 — the plug; 3 and 9 — pins; 4 — the case; 5 — the platen; 6 — a washer persistent steel; 7 — a washer persistent bronze; 8 — a gear wheel; 10 — the platen of a drive of the oil pump




The drive of the oil pump and the ignition gauge-distributor (fig. 4.14) is carried out from a camshaft in pair косозубых gear wheels. The leading gear wheel — steel, is filled in in a body of a pig-iron camshaft. The conducted gear wheel 8 — steel, thermostrengthened, is fixed by a pin on the platen 5 rotating in the pig-iron case. The top end of the platen is supplied by the plug 2 having a cut (it is displaced on 1,15 mm from a platen axis) for a drive of the gauge-distributor of ignition. The plug on the platen is fixed by a pin 3. To the bottom end of the platen шарнирно it is connected шестигранный the platen 10 which bottom end enters in шестигранное an aperture of the platen of the oil pump.
At rotation the gear wheel 8 through persistent washers 6 and 7 nestles on an end face of the pig-iron case of a drive. Greasing of this knot, and also the platen in the drive case is made by the oil which is sprayed by gear wheels of a drive and flowing down on a wall of the block. Oil flowing down on walls gets to a cut (trap) at the bottom end face of the case of a drive and further through an aperture — on a platen surface. In an aperture for the platen in the drive case the spiral flute on which oil at platen rotation rises upwards is cut and in regular intervals distributed on all its length. Superfluous oil from the top cavity of the case of a drive is taken away back in картер on a drain aperture in the case.
Correct position of the gauge-distributor of ignition on the engine is provided with such installation of a drive in the block at which at the moment of a finding of the piston of the first cylinder in ВМТ (a compression step) the cut on the drive plug settles down in parallel an engine axis on the maximum removal from it.

Fig. 4.15. The filter of clearing of oil: 1 — a cover; 2 and 5 — sealing rings; 3 — a lining; 4 — a filtering element; 6 — a stopper of a drain aperture; 7 — the gauge of emergency pressure of oil




The filter of clearing of oil (fig. 4.15) — полнопоточный, with paper or cotton replaceable filtering elements. Through the filter passes all oil forced by the pump in system.
Following filtering elements are applied to the given engines: НАМИ-ВГ-10, РЕГОТМАС-412-1-05 and РЕГОТМАС-412-1-06.
The filter consists of the case, a cover of 1 central core with перепускным the valve and a filtering element 4. The filter case is made of an aluminium alloy and fastens to the block of cylinders through паронитовую a lining four hairpins. The central core will screw on a hard carving in the case. The top end of a core has a carving for a nut of fastening of a cover of the filter. From below the stopper is screwed in the case 6 for plum of the settled pollution.
In a lug in the bottom part of the case will screw the gauge 7 emergency pressure of oil. The cover of 1 filter is made of an aluminium alloy. It fastens колпачковой a nut, навертываемой on the carving end of the central core acting from a cover. In проточке covers the rubber sealing lining is put. The cover nut is condensed with a copper lining.
The central core of the filter the hollow. In its top part it is located перепускной the valve consisting of a textolite plate of a saddle of the valve, a spring and a spring emphasis. In a core it is drilled four numbers of apertures for oil pass; the top number is located over the valve and over a filtering element. At an element normal state its resistance is insignificant, nearby 10—20 кПа (0,1 0,2 kgs/sm 2), and all oil passes through it, as is shown in the scheme conditional arrows. From a filtering element the cleared oil passes through apertures in a core and further in greasing system. At an element contamination its resistance increases, and, when pressure reaches 70 90 кПа (0,7—0,9 kgs/sm 2), перепускной the valve opens and starts to pass oil, passing эломеж, as is shown in fig. 4.11.
At installation in the case end faces of a filtering element from below and from above are condensed with rings 2 and 5 (fig. 4.15) from маслостойкой the rubbers, densely covering the central core. Consolidation on end faces is provided with a spring and the basic washer, pressing an element to an end face of a lug of a cover.