GAS a 2705/gazelleГАЗ-2705, ГАЗ-2705 "Kombi"
+ 1. Car nameplate data
2. Specifications and characteristics of cars
3. Controls and devices
- 4. The engine
- Engines ZMZ-4025,-4026
Case details of the engine
The krivoshipno-shatunnyj mechanism
The gazoraspredelitelnyj mechanism
System of greasing of the engine
Ventilation system картера
The power supply system
System рециркуляции the fulfilled gases
System of release of the fulfilled gases
Features of maintenance service of the engine
Diagnostics of a technical condition of the engine and its possible malfunctions
Possible malfunctions of the engine
+ Engines UMZ-4215S *, УМЗ-42150*
+ Engines ZMZ-4061, ЗМЗ-4063
+ 5. Transmission
+ 6. A running gear
+ 7. A steering
+ 8. Brake system
+ 9. An electric equipment
+ 10. A car body
+ 11. Car maintenance service
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"Gazelle" Gas-2705>> The engine>> Engines ZMZ-4025,-4026>> Engine repair
Necessity under repair the engine comes after run about 150 000 km. To this run backlashes reach the sizes causing falling of capacity of the engine, reduction of pressure of oil in an oil highway, sharp increase in the expense of oil (over 0,25 l/100 of km), excessive дымление the engine, the raised expense of fuel, and also the raised knocks.
Roughly backlashes in interface of the basic details owing to deterioration should not exceed following sizes, mm:
- Piston skirt — a cylinder sleeve..... 0,25
- Piston ring — a flute in the piston (on height)..... 0,15
- The lock of a piston ring..... 2,5
- The piston — a piston finger..... 0,015
- The top head of a rod — a piston finger..... 0,03
- шатунные and radical
- Bearings..... 0,15
- Valve core — the plug..... 0,20
- Axial люфт a camshaft..... 0,25
- Axial люфт a cranked shaft..... 0,40
Working capacity of the engine can be restored replacement of the worn out details new the standard size or repolishing of the worn out details and application of the new details of the repair size interfaced to them.
Following details of the repair sizes are issued: pistons, piston rings, loose leaves radical and шатунных bearings of a cranked shaft, a saddle of the inlet and final valves, the semiprocessed plugs of a camshaft and directing plugs of valves.
Removal and engine installation
For removal of the engine the car is necessary for establishing on a viewing hole. The workplace should be equipped талью or other elevating device by load-carrying capacity not less than 300 kg. Work on engine removal to make in a following order:
- To open a cowl and to remove it, having turned away four bolts of its fastening to loops;
- To merge cooling liquid from cooling system, having turned away a stopper on a radiator and having opened краники on the block of cylinders and a heater. To remove a stopper of a broad tank;
- To merge oil from картера the engine and from a transmission, having turned away a stopper of drain apertures. After plum of oil of a stopper to put into place and hardly to tighten;
- To remove the storage battery;
- To hook on the engine for cargo eyes and to pull a chain тали.
The works spent from below of the car:
- To remove карданный a shaft in gathering (the subsection «Kardannaja transfer» see);
- To establish a stopper-zaglushku (fig. 4.40) in an aperture of the extension piece of a transmission;
- To turn away a nut of fastening of a back support of the engine to a cross-beam;
- To disconnect a cross-beam from a frame of the car and to remove a cross-beam;
- To disconnect a shaft of a speedometer from a transmission;
- To disconnect an arm of fastening of reception pipes of system of release of the fulfilled gases from a transmission;
- To disconnect reception pipes from a final collector of the engine;
- To disconnect wires from the switch of light of a backing on a transmission;
- To turn away two bolts of fastening of the working cylinder of a drive of deenergizing of coupling and to disconnect the cylinder from картера couplings.
The works spent on the left side of the car:
— To disconnect from the distributor of ignition of a wire high and a low voltage, ignitions going to the coil, wires from a starter, from gauges of pressure and emergency pressure of oil on the oil filter, from the gauge of the index of temperature of a cooling liquid on the case of the thermostat and the gauge of a signalling device of an overheat of a cooling liquid in a cover of a head of cylinders;
- To disconnect a hose топливопровода from the fuel pump;
- To turn away a bolt of fastening of the left pillow to an arm on the engine.
The works spent on the right side of the car:
- To disconnect wires from the generator;
- To disconnect hoses of a fence of warm and cold air from the air filter, fence branch pipes воздyxa, thermoprotective экранa an exhaust pipe and to remove them;
— To disconnect a ventilation hose картера from the air filter, a cover коромысел and to remove it;
- To uncover and a filtering element of the air filter;
- To unbend moustaches of lock washers and to turn away a nut of fastening of the case of the air filter, cautiously to remove nuts and lock washers, having excluded their hit in the engine;
- To remove the case of the air filter with a flange and linings, to close the carburettor a pure napkin;
- To disconnect wires from the carburettor;
- To disconnect from the carburettor a rope of a drive throttle заслонок and draught air заслонки;
- To disconnect from the carburettor a hose топливопровода fuel restart-up;
- To disconnect hoses from the electromagnetic valve of system экономайзера compulsory idling;
- To disconnect two hoses of a heater from the engine;
- To disconnect краник plum of a cooling liquid;
- To disconnect a hose of the vacuum amplifier of brakes from an inlet pipe;
- To disconnect "a weight" wire;
- To turn away a bolt of fastening of the right pillow to an arm on the engine.
The works spent in front:
- To remove a lattice of facing of a radiator, having weakened fastening bolts;
- To disconnect a cable of the lock of a cowl;
- Having turned away bolts, to remove the top panel of facing of a radiator;
- Having turned away bolts, to remove a lath of the bottom fastening of facing of a radiator;
- To disconnect hoses from a broad tank to the case of the thermostat and a distributive branch pipe;
- To disconnect hoses from a radiator and from the engine, to remove hoses;
- To turn away bolts of fastening of a radiator and to remove it.
The works spent in a body:
- To lift to the handle of the lever of a gear change a rubber sealant;
- To turn away a cap of fastening of the lever on a mouth of a cover of a transmission and to pull out the lever upwards;
- To close an aperture in a mouth a pure napkin.
To take out the engine in gathering with coupling and a transmission. Engine installation is into place made in sequence, return to removal.
Instructions on repair.
Backlashes and tightnesses, and also technical requirements which are necessary for observing at assemblage of the engine and its knots, are resulted in table 4.6.
The engines arriving in repair, should be carefully cleared of a dirt. Engine dismantling, as well as assemblage, it is recommended to make at the stand, allowing to establish the engine in the positions providing an easy approach to all details during dismantling and assemblage by the tool of the corresponding size (wrenches, strippers, adaptations) which working surface should be in a good condition.
At an individual method of repair of a detail, suitable for the further work, should be established on the former places. Pistons, piston rings, sleeves of cylinders, rods, piston fingers, loose leaves, valves, bars, коромысла and pushers at removal it is necessary to mark in any way, without causing damage of details (кернением, надписыванием, an attachment of labels, etc.).
At the depersonalized repair of engines it is necessary to remember that covers of rods with rods and covers of radical bearings with the block of cylinders are processed in gathering and consequently them разукомплектовывать it is impossible. It is not recommended разукомплектовывать a cranked shaft with a flywheel and coupling as these knots at factory are exposed to balancing in the collected kind.
Gear wheels газораспределительного the mechanism steal up on noise and a backlash in gearing, therefore it is necessary to avoid them разукомплектования.
Carter of coupling (the top part) is processed together with the block, therefore to disconnect it from the block it is possible only at repair or replacement new.
Engine dismantling is recommended to be carried out in a following order:
- To take out a plug of deenergizing of coupling;
- To remove from the engine a transmission;
- To remove the fan;
- To remove the generator and a starter;
- To disconnect wires of a high voltage from candles, to lift the receiver a vacuum regulator and to remove the ignition gauge-distributor;
- To turn out candles;
- To remove the filter of thin clearing of fuel with an arm, the fuel pump and топливопроводы;
- To remove the carburettor together with linings and a safety guard, preliminary having removed ventilation tubes картера and рециркуляции the fulfilled gases;
- To remove the filter of clearing of oil, preliminary having removed gauges of the index of pressure both emergency pressure of oil and a tube of a supply of oil;
- To lift the receiver the index of level of oil together with the index;
- To remove the valve рециркуляции the fulfilled gases;
- To remove a gas pipeline and a gas pipeline lining;
- To uncover коромысел with a lining, trying not to damage last;
- To remove an axis коромысел with racks and to disassemble it;
- To take out bars of pushers;
- To remove a head of cylinders. If there is no necessity for dismantling and repair of the case of the thermostat, a gas pipeline and a head of cylinders, the head of cylinders can be removed together with these knots;
- To remove a tension roller and a fan drive;
- To remove the water pump;
- To fix plugs-clips of a sleeve of cylinders in order to avoid their drop - out of the block in the course of the further dismantling of the engine (fig. 4.50);
- By means of the adaptation (fig. 4.51) to make dismantle of springs of valves. That the plate of springs of the valve has descended from crackers, it is necessary to strike slightly after a preliminary inhaling of the screw the hammer handle on a plate скобы a stripper. To take out valves;
- To mark valves according to their arrangement;
- To remove a gauge-distributor drive;
- To uncover boxes of pushers;
- To take out pushers from nests and to lay them one after another;
- To remove the bottom part картера couplings;
- To remove oil картер;
- To turn out the coupling screw from a forward end face of a cranked shaft and to remove it together with a gear washer;
- To remove a pulley nave together with a pulley-dempferom of a cranked shaft by means of a stripper;
- To uncover distributive gear wheels;
- To remove the same stripper a gear wheel of a camshaft and a gear wheel of a cranked shaft, having removed preliminary маслоотражатель;
- To remove a persistent flange of a camshaft with распорной the plug;
- Cautiously to take out a camshaft. It can be taken out in gathering with a persistent flange and a gear wheel. In this case it is necessary to turn on a face key through apertures in a gear wheel two bolts of fastening of a persistent flange to the block;
- To lift the receiver greasings of distributive gear wheels;
- To remove a persistent washer of a cranked shaft;
- To remove a forward washer of the persistent bearing of a cranked shaft;
- To remove the oil pump;
- To remove covers шатунных bearings together with loose leaves;
- To take out pistons together with rods. Before dismantling of shatunno-piston group it is necessary to check up once again correctness of labels on rods and their covers, and also their conformity to serial numbers of cylinders;
- To remove a stripper piston rings from pistons (fig. 4.52);
- To take out from pistons lock rings. Выпрессовать by means of a stripper piston fingers from pistons (fig. 4.53).
- To remove the holder of stuffing of a cranked shaft;
- To remove covers of radical bearings with loose leaves. To check up correctness of labels on covers 2, 3 and 4 radical bearings;
- To take out a cranked shaft from the block of cylinders;
- To remove a back washer of the persistent bearing of a cranked shaft;
- To take out stuffing of back consolidation of a cranked shaft from the block of cylinders and the holder;
- To remove press and conducted coupling disks;
- To remove a flywheel;
- By means of a stripper (fig. 4.54) выпрессовать the bearing from a cranked shaft.
Before engine assemblage it is necessary to clear all its details of a deposit and resinous adjournment. It is impossible to wash out in alkaline solutions the details made of aluminium alloys (the block, a head of cylinders, pistons, etc.) as these solutions corrode aluminium.
For clearing of details of a deposit following solutions are recommended:
For aluminium details
- Soda (Na2CO3), г..... 18,5
- Soap (green or economic), г..... 10,0
- Liquid glass, г..... 8,5
- Water, l..... 1,0
For steel details
- каустическая soda (NaOH), г..... 25
- Soda (Na2CO3), г..... 33
- Soap (green or economic), г..... 8,5
- Liquid glass, г..... 1,5
- Water, l..... 1,0
At engine assemblage it is necessary to meet following conditions:
- To wipe all details a pure napkin and to blow compressed air, and all surfaces of a friction to grease with pure engine oil;
- To examine details before statement on a place (whether there are no cracks, having chopped off, забоин and other defects) to check up reliability of landing запрессованных in them of other details. Defective details are subject to repair or replacement with the new;
- Carving parts of details and the knots, leaving in a cavity of an oil highway and in a cavity of system of cooling to grease анаэробным with hermetic "Unigerm-6". It is possible to apply minium or the whitewash dissolved on natural drying oil;
- Motionless consolidations, especially joints of details (the bottom planes of the block of cylinders and a cover of distributive gear wheels, the holder of stuffing — the block of cylinders) to grease with glue-hermetic «Elastosil 137-83» or paste УН-25.
To statement on the engine are not supposed:
- шплинты, шплинтовочная a wire and the lock plates which were in the use;
- The spring washers which have lost elasticity;
- The damaged linings;
- The details having on a carving more of two hammered or broken threads;
- Bolts and hairpins with the extended carving;
- Bolts and nuts with the worn out sides.
Bolts and nuts should be appropriate amount законтрены (шплинтами, шплинтовочной a wire, springs both special washers and counternuts).
Engine assemblage to make in a following order:
- To clear all привалочные surfaces of the block of the linings which have stuck and torn at dismantling;
- To fix the block of cylinders at the stand, to turn out from forward and back end faces of a stopper of the oil channel and to blow all oil channels the compressed air. To wrap stoppers into place.
If replacement картера couplings is required or it is established on the block after repair, it is necessary to remove preliminary from the block two adjusting pins, then картер to fix on the block bolts. In the block on extreme loose leaves establish a cranked shaft to which flange the indicator rack fastens. Rotating a cranked shaft, check palpation of an aperture for aligning бурта transmissions, and also perpendicularity of a back end face картера couplings concerning an axis of a cranked shaft, as is shown in fig. 4.55 and 4.56. Aperture palpation картера and an end face should not exceed 0,3 mm, an end face — 0,15 mm. If aperture palpation exceeds the specified size it is necessary to weaken an inhaling of bolts and easy blows on a flange картера to achieve its correct installation. After an inhaling of bolts of an aperture for adjusting pins in картере and the block develop till the repair size. Blackness in apertures is not supposed. After that in apertures запрессовывают the pins, which diameter on 0,015—0,051 m there are more than sizes of apertures. End face palpation картера is eliminated шабровкой. It is necessary to mean that at the above described check it is necessary to use not worn out by cranked shaft and loose leaves which is necessary for removing after replacement картера;
- To replace defective sleeves of cylinders new as follows:
- By means of the combined stripper (fig. 4.57) выпрессовать an old sleeve. Having inserted stripper pads into the engine cylinder, it is necessary to rest hairpins 4 against the block and to move apart pads разжимным a bolt 5. Further, rotating the screw 7, выпрессовать a sleeve from the cylinder;
- Carefully to clear of a scum and corrosion landing surfaces and consolidation surfaces on a sleeve and on the block;
- To insert the repaired sleeve with a lining from soft copper into the cylinder from which it has been taken out. The sleeve should enter into the cylinder freely, without efforts and to act over a block plane on 0,02—0,10 mm. It is more convenient to check up preliminary size утопания sleeves in the cylinder without a lining. Утопание should be within 0,20—0,25 mm;
- To fix a sleeve the holder that it has not dropped out;
- To cut off from a cord two stuffings of back consolidation of a cranked shaft (length 120 mm everyone) to enclose them in the block and the holder;
- To make подсборку a cranked shaft, for this purpose to turn out all stoppers грязеуловителей шатунных necks and to remove from them adjournment. To wash out and blow oil channels and cavities грязеуловителей compressed air, to wrap stoppers the moment 38—42 Н·м (3,8—4,2 кгс·м);
- To check up a condition of working surfaces of a cranked shaft. Забоины, teases and other external defects are not supposed;
- запрессовать in the back end of a cranked shaft the ball bearing 80203 АС9 with two protective washers. It is supposed to use the bearing 60203А with one protective washer, thus in a cavity for the bearing it is necessary to put 20 г greasings "Litol-24";
- To tighten to a cranked shaft a flywheel. Nuts to tighten the moment 76—83 Н·м (7,6—8,3 кгс·м). Законтрить nuts, having unbent one of moustaches of a lock plate on a nut side;
- To tighten to a flywheel press a coupling disk in gathering with a casing, preliminary having centered a conducted disk with the help оправки (it is possible to use a primary shaft of a transmission) on an aperture in the bearing in a back end face of a cranked shaft. The labels «0» which have been beaten out on a casing of a press disk and on a flywheel about one of apertures for bolts of fastening of a casing, should be combined. An inhaling of bolts to make the moment 20—25 Н·м (2,0—2,5 кгс·м).
- The cranked shaft, flywheel and coupling are balanced in gathering and consequently at replacement of one of these details it is necessary to make dynamic balancing, drilling metal from a flywheel as it is specified in table 4.3. Balancing of a cranked shaft, a flywheel and coupling in gathering should not be begun, if the initial disbalance exceeds 200 г·см. In this case it is necessary knot раскомплектовать and to check up balancing of each detail separately (see to table 4.3.);
— To put on the first radical neck of a cranked shaft a back washer of the persistent bearing an antifrictional layer to a cheek of a cranked shaft;
— To press out stuffing of back consolidation of a cranked shaft in the block and the holder оправкой (fig. 4.58); a sharp knife to cut off on the block and the holder the acting ends of stuffing. The cut thus should be equal. Vystupanie stuffings over a socket plane — 0,5—1,0 mm;
- To wipe a pure napkin loose leaves of radical bearings and their bed. To establish loose leaves in bed;
- To grease with pure engine oil loose leaves of radical bearings and a neck of a cranked shaft and to lay a cranked shaft in the block of cylinders;
- To put on covers of radical bearings block hairpins so that fixing ledges on the top and bottom loose leaves of each cover were on the one hand, and numbers which have been beaten out on covers, corresponded to numbers of beds. At installation of a cover of the forward radical bearing the short moustache of a back washer should enter into a cover groove. The end face of a cover of the forward bearing should be in one plane with an end face of the block of cylinders;
- To plant covers of radical bearings on the places easy постукиванием a rubber hammer, covers should enter into grooves of beds of the block of cylinders;
- To put on washer hairpins, наживить nuts, to put on a carving part of nuts on 2—3 drops (0,06) hermetics "Unigerm-9" and in regular intervals to tighten nuts. The definitive inhaling is necessary for carrying out динамометрическим a key the moment 100—110 Н·м (10—11 кгс·м). If there is no hermetic latching of nuts can be made a lock plate 24-1005301-01;
- To establish in grooves of the holder of stuffing rubber linings and their lateral surface acting from a groove, to cover with a soap solution. To establish the holder into place and to tighten nuts;
- To turn a cranked shaft which should rotate freely at small effort. To rotate a cranked shaft it is possible for a flywheel or by means of the adaptation consisting of a primary shaft of a transmission with a tetrahedron welded on it on a turn-key basis or the handle with a square aperture. The adaptation can be used also for a centering at statement of a conducted disk of coupling;
- To put a forward washer of the persistent bearing an antifrictional layer outside that pins, запрессованные in the block and a cover, entered into washer grooves;
— To put on a steel persistent washer of a cranked shaft a facet in an internal aperture towards a forward washer of the persistent bearing;
- напрессовать against the stop a gear wheel of a cranked shaft and to check up its axial backlash. Check is made as follows: to put a screw-driver (вороток, the hammer handle, etc.) between the first crank of a shaft and a forward wall of the block and, using it as the lever, to wring out a shaft to a back part of the engine. With the help щупа to define a backlash between an end face of a back washer of the persistent bearing and a plane бурта the first radical neck. The backlash should be within 0,125—0,325 mm;
- To make подсборку shatunno-piston group. To clear the bottoms of pistons and a flute of piston rings of a deposit, as is shown in fig. 4.59. In case of replacement of pistons, sleeves, piston fingers or rods подсборку interfaced pairs it is necessary to make at temperature of details (20±3) ° With. In the chiseled or new sleeves it is necessary to establish pistons of dimensional groups identical with a sleeve. Selection from the next groups is supposed, thus, as well as at selection of pistons in working sleeves, selection is made on effort протягивания tapes-shchupa in the thickness of 0,05 mm and width 10 mm. The Tape-shchup takes places in a plane, a perpendicular axis of a piston finger, on the greatest diameter of the piston. The effort to a dynamometer connected to a tape-shchupom (fig. 4.60), should be 35—55 Н (3,5—5,5 кгс);
- To pick up a piston finger to a rod so that it densely entered into a rod aperture under effort of a thumb of a hand (fig. 4.61), moved freely, without jammings and did not drop out under the influence of own weight at an arrangement of an axis of an aperture of a rod at an angle 45 ° (roughly). The piston finger and a rod should be one or adjacent dimensional group. At selection the piston finger should be slightly greased by engine oil. Dimensional groups of the piston and a piston finger should coincide.
The piston with a piston finger, piston rings and a rod in gathering should be supervised on weight. The difference in weight on one engine should not exceed 12 г;
- запрессовать a piston finger in the piston and a rod by means of the adaptation. The piston thus to heat up to temperature 60—88 ° With, a piston finger slightly to grease with engine oil. The piston to connect directing оправкой 3 to a rod, to put on a piston finger the thin end оправки, as is shown in fig. 4.62, to put on подпятник 5 a finger and the screw 6 to send in addition a finger into place. Запрессовка a finger in the cold piston can lead to damage of a surface of apertures in piston lugs, and also to deformation of the piston. At piston statement (on a label "BEFORE" on the piston) the aperture for greasing of a mirror of the cylinder from the bottom head of a rod should be turned into the cylinder aside, opposite to a camshaft;
- To pick up for the cylinder piston rings, as is shown in fig. 4.63. The backlash measured in joints of rings, should be 0,3—0,7 mm at компрессионных rings and 0,3—1,0 mm at steel disks маслосъемного rings. In the worn out cylinders the least backlash — 0,3 mm;
— щупом to check up a backlash between rings and a wall of a piston flute, as is shown in fig. 4.64. Check to make on a piston circle in several points. The backlash size should be for top and bottom компрессионных rings within 0,050—0,870 mm, for modular маслосъемного rings — 0,135—0,335 mm;
- To put on by means of the adaptation piston rings the piston. Bottom компрессионное the ring is put by internal bore upwards (to a piston bottom) (fig. 4.4 see). Rings in flutes should move freely;
- To insert pistons into cylinders as follows:
• to wipe a napkin of bed of rods and their covers, to wipe and insert into them loose leaves;
• to turn a cranked shaft so that cranks of the first and fourth cylinders have occupied the position corresponding НМТ;
• to grease loose leaves, the piston, шатунную a neck of a shaft and a cylinder sleeve with pure engine oil;
• to dissolve joints компрессионных rings at an angle 180 ° to each other, and joints of disks маслосъемного rings — also at an angle 180 ° to each other and on 90 ° in relation to joints компрессионных rings. The lock of a two-functional dilator in a three-element ring thus to establish at an angle 45 ° to the lock of one of its ring disks;
- To put on bolts of rods safety brass tips, to compress rings обжимкой or, using конусным a ring, to insert the piston into the cylinder, as is shown in fig. 4.65. Before piston installation it is necessary to be convinced once again that numbers which have been beaten out on a rod and its cover, correspond to a cylinder serial number, to check up correctness of position of the piston and a rod in the cylinder;
- To tighten a rod for the bottom head to шатунной to a neck, to remove from bolts brass tips, to put on a rod cover. The rod cover should be put so that numbers which have been beaten out on a cover and a rod, have been turned into one party. After наживления nuts to put on a carving part of nuts on 2—3 drops (0,06) hermetics "Unigerm-9" and in regular intervals to tighten nuts. The definitive inhaling of nuts is necessary for making динамометрическим a key the moment 68—75 Н·м (6,8 7,5 кгс·м). In case of use of working details from nuts and bolts it is necessary to remove the rests before the applied hermetic, to degrease their gasoline and to dry;
- In the same order to insert the piston of the fourth cylinder;
- To turn a cranked shaft on 180 ° and to insert pistons of the second and third cylinders;
- To turn some times a cranked shaft which should rotate easily from small effort;
- To make подсборку a camshaft in a following order:
• to put on the forward end of a camshaft распорное a ring and a persistent flange;
• напрессовать by means of the adaptation a gear wheel of a camshaft and to fix its bolt with a washer. The inhaling moment — 55—60 Н·м (5,5—6,0 кгс·м);
• with the help щупа, a camshaft inserted between a persistent flange and a gear wheel nave to check up an axial backlash of a camshaft (fig. 4.66). The backlash should be within 0,1—0,2 mm;
• to clean a tube of greasing of distributive gear wheels and to tighten it by means of a bolt and хомутика to the block;
- To insert подсобранный a camshaft into a block aperture, having greased preliminary its basic necks with engine oil. At gearing of gear wheels the tooth of a gear wheel of a cranked shaft with a label «0» should be against risks at a hollow of teeths of a gear wheel of a camshaft (fig. 4.9 see). The lateral backlash in gearing should be within 0,025—0,1 mm. At большем or a smaller backlash to pick up other pair of gear wheels;
- Through apertures in a camshaft gear wheel to attach two bolts with spring washers a persistent flange to the block;
- To establish on a neck of the forward end of a cranked shaft маслоотражатель the convex party to a gear wheel;
- To check up suitability of a cuff, запрессованной in a cover of distributive gear wheels, to the further work. If the cuff has the worn out working edges or poorly covers a nave of a pulley of the cranked shaft, inserted into a cuff, to replace its new. Запрессовку cuffs in a cover are recommended to be made with the help оправки, as is shown in fig. 4.67;
- To put on hairpins of a lining a cover of distributive gear wheels;
— To centre a cover on the forward end of a cranked shaft with the help оправки (fig. 4.68) and to wrap all nuts and bolts of fastening of a cover. If is not present aligning оправки cover installation can be made on a nave of a pulley of a cranked shaft. A nave it is necessary напрессовать on a cranked shaft so that its end entered on depth of 5 mm into a cover aperture. After that to fix a cover nuts, maintaining an identical backlash on a circle between a nave and a cover aperture. Backlash alignment to make easy blows of a wooden or rubber hammer on a cover. After that definitively to fix a cover;
- To remove aligning оправку and напрессовать a nave of a pulley with a pulley-dempferom of a cranked shaft (fig. 4.69);
- To insert in шпоночный a groove a rubber stopper and запрессовать шпонку;
- To wrap in a sock of a cranked shaft a coupling bolt, preliminary having put on it a gear washer. Turning for a coupling bolt a cranked shaft, to check up, whether touches a pulley-dempfer a cover of distributive gear wheels;
- To establish the oil pump in gathering with маслоприемником;
- To establish a drive of the oil pump and the gauge of the distributor of ignition in a following order:
• turning a cranked shaft, to combine the third label on a disk демпфера with an edge-index on a cover of distributive gear wheels (see
Fig. 4.6). The cams of a camshaft putting in action valves of the first cylinder, should be thus directed by tops in the opposite party from pushers (towards oil картера) and are symmetrized (fig. 4.70);
• to check up an axial backlash between the case of a drive and a gear wheel with the help щупа (fig. 4.71). The backlash should be within 0,15—0,40 mm;
• to put on hairpins of fastening of a drive a lining;
• to turn the drive platen in the position shown on fig. 4.72 And, and to put a drive in a block nest. At drive introduction in a nest it is necessary to turn slightly the platen of the oil pump that the end of the platen of a drive has entered into an aperture of a shaft of the pump. The drive should be inserted without considerable efforts. In correctly established drive the cut in the platen plug should be directed in parallel an axis of the engine and is displaced from the engine, as is shown in fig. 4.72 In;
• to fix a drive;
- To check up backlash presence in camshaft and drive gear wheels;
- To grease joints of the bottom flange of the block of cylinders with a cover of distributive gear wheels and the holder of stuffing by glue-hermetic «Elastosil 137-83» or paste УН-25;
- To establish on the bottom flange of the block of cylinders a lining oil картера;
- To establish oil картер on hairpins and to fix its nuts with washers, in regular intervals tightening nuts;
- To establish and tighten bolts the bottom part картера couplings;
- To clear chambers of combustion and channels of a head of cylinders of a deposit and adjournment, to wipe and blow compressed air;
- To grind in valves, using притирочную the paste made of one part of micropowder М-20 and two parts of oil И-20А.
Before the grinding in beginning it is necessary to check up, whether is not present коробления a plate of the valve and a valve and saddle burn-out. In the presence of these defects to restore tightness of the valve one grinding in it is impossible and follows at first прошлифовать a saddle, and the damaged valve to replace new. If the backlash between the valve and the plug exceeds 0,25 mm tightness also cannot be restored. In this case it is necessary to replace the valve and the plug new.
Valves (in spare parts) are issued the standard size, and directing plugs — with the internal diameter reduced by 0,38 mm (for their expansion under the definitive size after запрессовки in a head of cylinders). Выпрессовка the worn out directing plug it is made with the help оправки (fig. 4.73). Saddles of valves leave milling твердосплавным a vertical drill.
Repair saddles have external diameter on 0,25 mm more than standard, therefore nests for saddles are chiseled till next sizes: for a saddle of the inlet valve — 49,25+0,025 mm, for final — 42,25+0,025 mm. Saddles of valves and directing plugs before assemblage should be cooled in carbon dioxide (dry ice), and a head of cylinders to heat up to temperature 160—175 ° S.Sedla and plugs at assemblage should be inserted into head nests freely or with easy effort.
Запрессовка new plugs of inlet and final valves it is made to выступания over a head on 20 mm. After запрессовки to develop an aperture of the plug till the diameter of 9+0,022 mm, and facets of saddles прошлифовать, aligning on an aperture in the plug. At polishing it is necessary to provide концентричность facets on a saddle of the valve with an aperture in the plug within 0,05 mm. Facets grind at an angle 45 °. External diameter (fig. 4.74) facets at a saddle for the inlet valve should be 46,8 mm, and at final — 38,8 mm. The width of a facet «b» should be at a saddle of the inlet valve of 1,8-2,3 mm, at final — 2,3—2,5 mm. The width of a facet is provided расшлифовкой apertures of a saddle of the inlet valve at an angle 30 °, as is shown in fig. 4.74 And, and the final valve — at an angle 15 ° (fig. 4.74 B). The facet should be identical on all perimetre.
After polishing of saddles and grinding in of valves all gas channels carefully to clear and blow compressed air that does not remain to an abrasive dust;
- Cores of valves to cover with a thin layer коллоидного the graphite dissolved in oil, applied to the engine, or to oil;
- On directing plugs of valves напрессовать маслосъемные caps to insert valves into plugs according to the made labels and to collect them with springs. To be convinced that crackers have entered into a ring flute of valves;
- To rub with a graphite powder from both parties a lining of a head of cylinders and to put on it hairpins. To establish a head and to fix its nuts with washers. To tighten nuts динамометрическим a key the moment 83—90 Н·м (8,3—9,0 кгс·м), observing an order specified in fig. 4.34;
- To clean a wire and to blow compressed air of an aperture in коромыслах, in an axis коромысел and adjusting screws, in the fourth basic rack of an axis коромысел and oil channels in a head of cylinders. To check up reliability of landing of plugs коромысел. In case of weak landing in an operating time the plug can be displaced and block an aperture for greasing of a bar of a pusher of the valve. It is necessary to replace such plugs;
- To make подсборку axes коромысел. Before statement of everyone коромысла to grease its plug with engine oil;
- To insert pushers into nests according to labels on them. Pushers and apertures in the block preliminary to grease with engine oil;
- To insert bars in gathering with tips into apertures in a head of cylinders;
- To establish подсобранную an axis коромысел on hairpins and to fix nuts with washers. Adjusting bolts the spherical part should lay down on sphere of the top tip of a bar;
- To establish backlashes between end faces of cores of valves and nouses коромысел. A backlash between коромыслами both the first and eighth valves — 0,35—0,40 mm, a backlash between the others коромыслами and valves — 0,40—0,45 mm. Adjustment to make, as it is specified in subsection «Feature of maintenance service of the engine»;
- To put a lining and a cover коромысел and to fix their bolts with washers, observing an order specified in fig. 4.35;
- To grease and put on a forward cover of a transmission муфту coupling deenergizings in gathering with the bearing;
- To establish and fix a transmission;
- To establish a plug of deenergizing of coupling;
- To establish details and the units of the engine named in subsection «engine Dismantling», observing return sequence.
Dismantling, repair and assemblage of separate knots and engine units
The pump of a cooling liquid.
Pump dismantling is necessary for carrying out in a following order:
- To turn away bolts of fastening of a cover of the pump and to uncover;
- To remove a stripper крыльчатку (fig. 4.75);
- To remove a stripper a nave (fig. 4.76);
- To turn out a bearing clamp;
- выпрессовать from the case the bearing in gathering with the platen (fig. 4.77);
- выпрессовать from the case an epiploon.
Pump assemblage to spend in the following sequence:
- With the help оправки to establish an epiploon, without supposing a warp, in the pump case (fig. 4.78);
- запрессовать the bearing with the platen in gathering in the case so that the nest under a clamp has coincided with an aperture in the pump case (fig. 4.79);
- To wrap a clamp of the bearing and закернить that did not occur самоотворачивание a clamp;
- напрессовать on the platen of the bearing a nave of a pulley of the pump, having sustained the size (117,5±0,2) mm (fig. 4.80);
- напрессовать крыльчатку on the bearing platen заподлицо with the pump case. To act крыльчатка because of a case plane should no more, than on 0,2 mm (fig. 4.81);
- To establish on the case a lining and to tighten bolts a cover.
At напрессовке naves and крыльчатки it is necessary to unload the case, a clamp and the bearing of the pump from efforts запрессовки, i.e. The emphasis at напрессовке should be on a platen end face.
Before assemblage to clear and wash out pump details, to remove adjournment with крыльчатки cases and covers. To check up size of axial moving of an external holder of the bearing concerning the platen which should not exceed 0,13 mm at loading 50 Н (5 кгс).
The pump bearing is filled by greasing on manufacturer and at repair of the pump of greasing does not demand.
The oil pump.
Pump dismantling to spend in a following order:
- To turn away four bolts, to remove a reception branch pipe with a grid, a branch pipe lining, a pump cover, a cover lining;
- To take out from the case a conducted gear wheel and the platen with a leading gear wheel in gathering. The leading gear wheel (as the spare part) arrives in gathering with the platen that appreciably facilitates pump repair;
- To take out a spring and плунжер редукционного the valve from the pump case, preliminary having removed шплинт;
- To wash out details and to blow compressed air.
Pump assemblage to spend in a following order:
- To insert into the case the platen in gathering with a leading gear wheel and to check up ease of its rotation;
— To put in the case a conducted gear wheel and to check up ease of rotation of both gear wheels;
- To put on the case a lining from a cardboard in the thickness of 0,3 mm. Application of a varnish, a paint and others герметизирующих substances at lining installation, and also installation of thicker lining is not supposed, as it conducts to the pressure decrease, developed by the pump;
- To put a cover, паронитовую a lining, a reception branch pipe with a grid and to tighten to the case bolts with spring washers. If on a cover plane there is a considerable development from gear wheels it is necessary прошлифовать it before removal of traces of development;
- To insert плунжер and a spring редукционного the valve into an aperture in the case and to fix шплинтом with a washer;
- To check up the pressure developed by the pump. Pressure is checked at certain resistance on an exit. For this purpose on special installation the jet in diameter joins a target branch pipe of the pump of 1,5 mm and length 5 mm. The pump with a reception branch pipe and a grid should be in the tank which has been filled in with a mix, consisting of 90 % of kerosene and 10 % of oil М-8В or М-53/10Г1. Mix level in a tank should be on 20—30 mm below a plane of a socket of the case and a cover of the oil pump. The pump is resulted in rotation from the electromotor. At frequency of rotation of a shaft of the pump of 250 mines-1 the pressure developed by the pump, should be not less than 100 кПа (1 kgs/sm 2), and at 725 mines-1 — from 360 to 500 кПа (from 3,6 to 5 kgs/sm 2). At smaller pressure of oil reduction of a thickness of a lining between the case and a cover is supposed. A drive of the oil pump and the ignition gauge-distributor. In spare parts the drive in gathering and separately шестигранный the platen of a drive of the oil pump arrives. Therefore to assort a drive follows only at deterioration шестигранного the platen or insignificant deterioration of the case (a backlash between the case and a gear wheel — 0,5 1,0 mm). At deterioration of a gear wheel, the platen of a drive or considerable deterioration of the case a drive to replace.
Drive dismantling to carry out in a following order:
- выпрессовать a pin of a gear wheel of a drive with the help a small beard and to remove шестигранный the platen of a drive of the oil pump;
- To press a gear wheel. For this purpose to establish the drive case the top end face on a support with an aperture, than the platen easy access to gathering with the persistent plug is provided. Effort выпрессовки to apply on the platen end through оправку 012,5 mm (fig. 4.80).
Drive assemblage to carry out in a following order:
- To insert into the case the platen in gathering with the plug, having greased with its engine oil;
- If necessary to put on the platen a persistent washer. The thickness of a washer should be picked up so that after напрессовки gear wheels between a washer and a gear wheel there was a backlash of 0,15-0,40 mm;
- напрессовать a gear wheel on the platen before aperture coincidence under a pin in a gear wheel and the platen (fig. 4.81);
— To insert in шестигранное an aperture the platen of a drive of the oil pump;
- запрессовать in an aperture a pin in diameter of 3,5-0,08 mm and length 22 mm, расклепав it from both parties;
- To check up a hand platen rotation, a backlash between the case and a gear wheel (between a persistent washer and a gear wheel) and radial moving of the free end шестигранного the platen of a drive of the oil pump. Radial moving should be not less than 1 mm in any direction.
Power supply system repair
In case of infringement of tightness of its fuel tank it is necessary to remove from the car. For this purpose it is necessary to weaken nuts of fastening of a plate of a loop лючка a bulk pipe and to take out an arm 3 (fig. 4.23 see), to remove лючок a body floor (over a fuel tank) and to disconnect fuel hoses from топливозаборника, to remove the wires going to the gauge of the index of level of fuel and to isolate them, to disconnect from arms coupling tapes (preliminary having put under a tank an emphasis) and to remove a tank.
Before check of tightness it is necessary to remove the gauge of the index of level of fuel from a fuel tank and топливозаборник with the filter for what to turn on on five screws of fastening of their flanges to a tank; to remove a bulk pipe together with hoses (for motor vans and buses).
Tightness of a fuel tank check compressed air under the pressure of 20 кПа (0,2 kgs/sm 2), placing it in water, preliminary having closed заглушками or stoppers all flanges and apertures. Air is brought through the special tube inserted into a bulk pipe and supplied with the gate for overlapping of access of air at increase of pressure more 20 кПа (0,2 kgs/sm 2) and a control manometre.
In places негерметичности there will be air vials. These places should be noted a paint.
To solder a tank it is possible only after its careful washing (inside and outside) hot water and purges the compressed air. After the soldering it is necessary to check up tightness of a tank again.
Assemblage and installation of a fuel tank carry out in an order, the return to dismantling and removal of a tank from the car. At assemblage it is necessary to watch safety and correctness of installation of linings under flanges of an intaking tube and the gauge of the index of level. For prevention of infiltration of fuel through thinnesses of a carving screws of fastening of flanges before завертыванием are recommended to be dipped into minium or shellac. All connections of a tank in order to avoid depressurization after assemblage and its installation on the car should be tightened densely, however with little effort.
топливопроводов it is necessary to replace faulty details new.
The fuel pump
The fuel pump demands repair in cases of break of a diaphragm, infringement of tightness soaking up or final valves, loss of elasticity of a sealant of draught of a diaphragm, and also deterioration of the lever of a drive and a textolite washer of draught of a diaphragm.
Dismantling of the fuel pump to spend in a following order:
- To turn away two screws 5 (fig. 4.26) fastenings of a cover see and cautiously to uncover, a rubber condensing lining and the mesh filter of the pump;
— To turn away eight screws of fastening of a head of the pump to the case, cautiously to remove a head and to release a diaphragm;
— In need of replacement of valves выпрессовать from a head of the pump of a holder of valves to remove from a holder the rubber valve, a plate of the valve and a spring. It is not recommended to unscrew needlessly from a head and a pump cover топливоподводящий and taking away unions;
- To turn out from the case carving заглушки lever axes;
- To take out a lever axis, preliminary having removed a lever spring;
- To take out the lever of a drive of the pump and the lever plug;
- To take out a diaphragm together with draught, a spring, a sealant and the holder of a sealant from the pump case;
- To take out the platen of the lever of a manual drive together with a sealing rubber ring, preliminary having released a lever spring;
- To disassemble a diaphragm for what to wring out a spring and, having removed the steel holder of a sealant, to remove it;
- To turn away a draught nut, to remove a spring washer, the top cup, diaphragm petals, the bottom cup and condensing washer.
Survey and the control of details.
Carefully to examine a condition of details, preliminary having cleared and having washed out them in kerosene or неэтилированном gasoline. In need of valve replacement especially to pay attention to a saddle condition in a head.
Rubber valves, lining of a cover of a head or the petals of a diaphragm having коробление and loss of elasticity to replace.
Total deterioration of a working surface of the lever, aperture of the lever, the plug, axis and the pump case, and also textolite washer of draught of a diaphragm to consider admissible in limits which provide reception of giving of the pump not less than 145 л/ч at frequency of rotation of the clown of 1800 mines-1.
Pump assemblage is carried out in an order, the return to dismantling. Thus the special attention should be turned on correctness подсборки diaphragms and its installations into the pump.
Before assemblage it is necessary to check up the characteristic of a spring of the pump: free length of a spring — 50 mm; at loading 50+3 Н (5,1+0,3 кгс) the length of a spring should be 28,5 mm. Quantity of coils of a spring — 6+0,5, external diameter of a spring — 24 mm, diameter of a wire — (1,8±0,03) mm, a material — a steel 65ГА.
Подсборку diaphragms are recommended to be carried out in the special adaptation (fig. 4.84). Before assemblage all details to wash out in pure gasoline, diaphragm petals to sustain 30 40 minutes in kerosene and to wipe a pure napkin from both parties. Then to insert draught into the adaptation and consistently to put on the acting end of draught a rubber sealant of draught, a sealing copper washer, the bottom cup (the concave party downwards), four petals of a diaphragm (so that adaptation pins have entered into its aperture), the top cup and to turn a nut a hand on some threads of a carving, having put under it a spring washer. Then to clamp all details in the adaptation and to tighten a nut to the full.
To take out подсобранную a diaphragm from the adaptation, to put on a spring draught and to liberate from a spring a rubber sealant. To wring out a spring and to establish on a rubber sealant the steel holder.
At запрессовке holders of valves in a pump head it is necessary to provide the sizes between a plate of the valve and a holder at inlet valves of 1,5 1,8 mm, at delivery — 2,0—2,3 mm (fig. 4.85).
At assemblage completely подсобранной diaphragms (with a sealant and a spring, with a head and the case) it is necessary to wrap slightly at first eight screws of fastening of a head to the case, and then, taking away the lever of a manual drive in extreme top position, completely to tighten them. It will allow to prevent break of a diaphragm or its excessive extract in the beginning of work of the pump.
The head and cover at pump assemblage should be put concerning the case in the position shown on fig. 4.86.
After assemblage it is necessary to check up the pump on the giving beginning, pressure, depression and giving how it has been specified above.
Carburettor dismantling is recommended to be carried out in a following order:
— To turn away the screw of fastening of draught air заслонки to the drive lever;
- To turn away seven screws of fastening of a cover поплавковой chambers, to uncover and a lining under it, trying not to damage a lining;
- To turn away two screws and to remove air заслонку if backlashes between air заслонкой and an air branch pipe exceed the normal;
- To turn away the screw and to remove a spray of the accelerating pump;
- To turn away the screw and to remove a spray эконостата;
- To turn away a stopper and to take out a float axis, to remove a float, to take out a needle of the fuel valve. To turn out the case of the fuel valve together with a lining;
- To turn away a stopper of the filter and to remove the mesh filter;
- To turn away four screws of fastening of a cover of a diaphragm of the accelerating pump, to uncover and take out a diaphragm with a spring;
- To turn out the main jets of the first and second chambers of the carburettor;
- To turn out air jets and to take out эмульсионные tubes of the first and second chambers;
— To turn out jets of system of idling of the first chamber and jets of transitive system;
- To turn away two screws and to remove диафрагменное запорное the device экономайзера compulsory idling;
- To turn away three screws and to remove the case of independent system.
The control and survey of details.
After dismantling it is necessary to wash out details in gasoline, to blow compressed air and to check up their technical condition which should meet following requirements:
- All details should be pure, without a deposit and resinous adjournment;
- Jets after washing and a purge the compressed air should have the set throughput or the size;
- All valves should be tight, linings — whole and to have traces (prints) of condensed planes;
- Should not be appreciable износов (люфтов) in connections: a float axis — an arm of a float, a lug of the case of mixing chambers — axes throttle заслонок.
Carburettor assemblage is made in an order, the return to dismantling. At first it is necessary подсобрать all three parts of the carburettor — a cover, cases поплавковой and mixing chambers and then to connect them among themselves. At assemblage it is necessary:
- To watch safety and correct installation of linings;
- To watch, that throttle and air заслонки turned absolutely freely, without jammings and densely covered the channels;
- To tighten all carving connections it is dense, but without excessive efforts;
- To check up and if necessary to adjust fuel level in поплавковой to the chamber.