ГАЗ-2705, ГАЗ-2705 "Kombi"
+ 1. Car nameplate data
2. Specifications and characteristics of cars
3. Controls and devices
- 4. The engine
- Engines ZMZ-4025,-4026
Case details of the engine
The krivoshipno-shatunnyj mechanism
The gazoraspredelitelnyj mechanism
System of greasing of the engine
Ventilation system картера
The power supply system
System рециркуляции the fulfilled gases
System of release of the fulfilled gases
Features of maintenance service of the engine
Diagnostics of a technical condition of the engine and its possible malfunctions
Possible malfunctions of the engine
+ Engines UMZ-4215S *, УМЗ-42150*
+ Engines ZMZ-4061, ЗМЗ-4063
+ 5. Transmission
+ 6. A running gear
+ 7. A steering
+ 8. Brake system
+ 9. An electric equipment
+ 10. A car body
+ 11. Car maintenance service
"Gazelle" Gas-2705>> The engine>> Engines ZMZ-4025,-4026>> Features of maintenance service of the engine
Case details of the engine — the block and a head of cylinders do not demand service, except for clearing of a dust and a dirt and a tightening of carving connections. Eventually a lining of a head of cylinders обминается, easing of an inhaling of nuts of fastening of a head, a burn-out of a lining and break of gases outside therefore is possible, therefore while in service through each 20 000 km of run of the car it is necessary to spend a tightening of a head of cylinders. Nuts of hairpins of fastening of a head of cylinders are tightened from the head middle to end faces (forward and back) (fig. 4.34).
It is necessary to do an inhaling and check of the moments of an inhaling on the cold engine. If this operation to execute on the hot engine after its cooling the inhaling of nuts will appear incomplete owing to the big difference in factors of linear expansion of a material of a head, the block and hairpins. For uniform and dense прилегания to the block an inhaling it is necessary to do heads in two steps: preliminary — with small effort and it is definitive — with the set moment 83—90 Н·м (8,3—9,0 кгс·м).
It is necessary to mean that the inhaling of nuts causes change of backlashes in газораспределительном the mechanism. Therefore after each such operation it is necessary to check size of backlashes between коромыслами and cores of valves. If necessary thermal backlashes should be adjusted. Dense and uniform прилегания cover linings коромысел to a head of cylinders коромысел should be made an inhaling of bolts of fastening of a cover for maintenance in the sequence shown on fig. 4.35.
In an operating time of the engine, especially worn out, which ring pass a lot of oil, on walls of the chamber of combustion and the bottoms of pistons отлагается a deposit layer. The deposit worsens теплоотдачу through walls in cooling liquid therefore there are local overheats, the phenomena of a detonation and калильного ignitions, capacity of the engine decreases, and the fuel expense increases.
At occurrence of such signs it is necessary to remove a head and to clear the chamber of combustion and the bottom of the piston of a deposit. Before clearing it is necessary to moisten a deposit with kerosene. It prevents dispersion of a deposit and warns hit of a poisonous dust in respiratory ways.
The deposit also is formed at long work on small loadings of the serviceable not worn out engine. In this case the deposit burns out at long movement with a great speed.
At removal of a head of cylinders it is recommended to grind in valves (the subsection «engine Repair» see).
While in service through each 20 000 km of run of the car it is necessary to check and regulate a backlash between valves and коромыслами. To do it follows on the cold engine (+20 °) at the tightened nuts of fastening of a head of cylinders and nuts of fastening of racks of an axis коромысел. The thermal backlash between коромыслами and valves should be within 0,35—0,45 mm. At the increased backlashes there is a knock of valves, and at reduced probably leaky прилегание the valve to a saddle and the valve burn-out, therefore specified above size of backlashes it is not necessary to reduce even in the presence of some knock which though is unpleasant on hearing, but does not cause infringements of normal work of the engine.
Check and adjustment of thermal backlashes is recommended to be made in the following sequence:
- To establish the piston of 1st cylinder in ВМТ a compression step. For this purpose it is necessary, turning a cranked shaft a special key, to combine the third label on демпферной parts of a pulley of a cranked shaft with an edge-index on a cover of distributive gear wheels. At a step both compression коромысла 1st cylinder should shake freely on axes, i.e. Both valves are closed. To check up щупом a backlash between коромыслом and the valve. At a wrong backlash to turn on a wrench a nut of the adjusting screw and, turning a screw-driver the adjusting screw, to establish a backlash on щупу. Supporting a screw-driver the adjusting screw, законтрить its nut and to check up correctness of a backlash;
- To turn a cranked shaft on a half-turn, to adjust backlashes for 2nd cylinder;
- To turn a cranked shaft for a half-turn, to adjust backlashes for 4th cylinder;
- To turn a cranked shaft for a half-turn, to adjust backlashes for 3rd cylinder.
At car operation it is necessary to check daily oil level in картере and tightness of system of greasing. Through each 10 000 km of run of the car it is necessary to change oil in system of greasing and a filtering element of the oil filter, in due time to wash out system of greasing and to eliminate shown thinnesses in connections of details.
Oil level check at the idle engine on labels on an index core. It is recommended to support level of oil about a label «П». Increase of level above a label «П» is undesirable, as кривошипные heads of rods will plunge into oil and to spray it, causing formation in картере an excessive oil fog. It causes забрызгивание candles, intensive formation of a deposit on the bottoms of pistons and walls of the chamber of combustion, закоксовывание rings, дымление the engine and the raised expense of oil.
Fall of level of oil below a label "About" dangerous as oil giving in system thus stops and is possible smelting of bearings. Oil level should be checked in some minutes after pouring or an engine stop. After oil replacement it is necessary to start up the engine and to allow to it to work some minutes. After a while check oil level as it is specified above.
To merge oil for replacement it is necessary only on the hot engine. In this case oil has smaller viscosity and well flows down. At oil change it is necessary to merge also a sediment from the oil filter, to clear an internal surface of the case and a core and to replace filtering element. Before installation it is necessary to impregnate filtering element with pure engine oil. For density maintenance прилегания filter covers it is recommended to put it together with a lining in the same position with what it occupied before removal. It is not necessary to tighten excessively a bolt of fastening of a cover as it can lead to cover deformation. прилегания covers check density after engine start-up. To exclude receipt of not filtered oil in the engine, rubber sealing rings of a filtering element should possess elasticity and not have deformation.
While translating for other mark of oil it is necessary for engine operation to wash out greasing system fresh oil of that mark which will be used for engine greasing. For this purpose from картера the heated-up engine it is necessary to merge old oil, to fill in on 2—4 mm above a label "About" on the index of level of oil промывочное oil, to start up the engine and to work 15 minutes on an idling mode at small frequency of rotation, to muffle the engine, to merge oil from картера, to replace filtering element and to fill in fresh oil.
During operation to make доливку oils only that mark what is filled in in the engine.
For service of system of ventilation картера it is necessary:
- To remove the air filter, ventilation hoses картера;
- To uncover коромысел and the carburettor;
- To wash out kerosene and to blow air a cover коромысел and hoses;
- To clean a copper wire in diameter of 1,5 mm the calibrated aperture 50 (fig. 4.29 see) in the case of mixing chambers;
- To provide tightness of all connections at assemblage.
At operation it is not necessary to suppose work at opened маслозаливной to a mouth: it leads to hit in the engine of crude air and causes the raised deterioration of details of the engine.
To check up correctness of assemblage and normal work of system of ventilation картера, it is necessary to press on the working engine at the minimum turns of idling a hose bringing картерные gases to the carburettor. If engine turns sharply fall or the engine глохнет, the system works normally.
Care of cooling system - consists in daily check of level of a cooling liquid in a broad tank. Liquid level on the cold engine should be not below label MIN.
Label MIN is put on a wall of a broad tank. If necessary add cooling liquid in a broad tank. In cases frequent доливки check up tightness of system of cooling.
At service of system of cooling it is necessary to mean that cooling liquids «Antifreeze 40М», "Lena", "Termosol" are poisonous and inflammable, as in the structure contain этиленгликоль. By analogy to the last liquids possess poisonous both narcotic action and ability to get into an organism through a skin.
At hit in an organism through a mouth the cooling liquid causes a chronic poisoning with defeat of vitals of the person (operates on vessels, kidneys, nervous system). Therefore at use of a cooling liquid it is necessary to observe following safety measures:
— Not to suck in a liquid a mouth at its transfusion;
— In an operating time with a cooling liquid not to smoke and not to accept food;
— When at work it is possible разбрызгивание a cooling liquid, to use goggles;
— Open sites of a skin on which the cooling liquid has got, it is necessary to wash out water with soap.
Through each 10 000 km of run it is necessary to regulate a tension of belts of a drive of auxiliary units, and also to check tightness of all connections of system of cooling. At detection of drops or insignificant humidity it is necessary to tighten collars of connections.
At considerable leaks of a liquid for level restoration water use is supposed in exceptional cases. However the density of a mix thus will inevitably go down and the temperature of its freezing will raise. Therefore as soon as possible it is necessary to replace a mix with a new cooling liquid. At addition in system of cooling of water level in a broad tank should be above label MIN on 7-10 see
Before the beginning of winter operation it is necessary to check up liquid density in system of cooling which should be within 1,078 1,085 g/sm 3 at 20 ° With.
Every three year it is necessary to wash out system of cooling and to fill in a new cooling liquid, and also it is recommended to check work of the thermostat and the block of valves of a stopper of a broad tank.
Replacement of a cooling liquid to make in I follow an order:
— To establish the car on a horizontal platform;
— To be convinced that краник a heater it is opened, for what to include ignition, to turn the handle 4 regulators of temperature of air, to switch off ignition;
— To remove a stopper of a broad tank;
— To merge cooling liquid from the engine and a radiator through краник 1 (fig. 4.16 see) and a stopper 13;
— To disconnect a drain hose of system of heating from the union on the engine (on the right side) and a bringing hose from the bottom tube of a radiator of a heater;
- On cars GA3-2705 "Комби" and by buses to remove on a floor in a cabin a protective casing of hoses of a heater and to disconnect hoses from a radiator 4 additional heaters, preliminary having established under the bottom tube of a radiator capacity for a liquid;
- After plum of a liquid from heating system to establish the removed hoses on the places.
To wash out cooling system, for what:
- To wrap краник 1 and a stopper 13 radiators;
- To fill system of cooling of the engine with pure water through a jellied mouth of a broad tank to normal level and to wrap a tank stopper;
- To start up the engine, to warm up it on average turns till 80-90 ° With and to work 3—5 minutes;
- To stop the engine and to merge water as it is specified above.
To fill cooling system, for what:
- To turn краник on the block of the engine and a radiator stopper. The stopper of a tee 8 (fig. 4.16 see) should be turned out on 2—3 turns;
- Slowly to fill in a liquid in a broad tank. If the liquid does not leave a tank, 1—2 times vigorously to press taking away hose of a radiator for removal of accumulated air;
- At occurrence of a liquid from under a tee stopper — to wrap a stopper.
After refuelling it is necessary to start up the engine and, idling, to warm up it before opening of the basic valve of the thermostat. Thus on cars GAZ-2705 "Комби" and by buses it is necessary to include the electropump (the section «Features of system of heating and ventilation of car GAZ-2705" Комби "and buses» see).
To allow to work to the engine of 3-5 minutes (cycles) at various frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft: 3000 mines-1 — 0,5 minutes; 1500 mines-1 — 0,5 minutes; the minimum turns of idling — 0,5 minutes
To check up tightness of system of cooling. After engine cooling to check up liquid level in a broad tank and if necessary to add to norm.
Check of work of the thermostat consists in check of temperature of the beginning of opening of the basic valve, size and time of its full opening. For this purpose the thermostat remove from the engine and place in a tank with a cooling liquid in volume not less than 3 l and fix on an arm so that all thermopower element was washed by streams of a mixed liquid. Intensity of heating of a liquid after 55 ° With should be not above 1 ° With in a minute.
For temperature of the beginning of opening of the basic valve accept temperature at which the valve stroke will make 0,1 mm. This temperature should be (80±2) ° With.
At temperature, on 15 ° With exceeding temperature of the beginning of opening of the basic valve, the size of full opening of the valve should be not less than 8,5 mm.
Time of full opening of the basic valve is defined from the moment of immersing of a thermopower element in a liquid at temperature nearby 100 ° S.Eto time should be no more than 80 with.
Following deviations of parametres of the thermostat concerning rating values are while in service supposed:
• temperature of the beginning of opening of the core клапанa — on ±3 ° With;
• valve stroke loss — on 20 %.
The elementary check of serviceability of the thermostat can be carried out to the touch directly on the car. After start-up of the cold engine at the serviceable thermostat the hose connecting a branch pipe of the thermostat with right (on a car course) a radiator tank, should heat up, when the temperature of a cooling liquid will reach 80—90 ° S.Pri it a marksman of the index of temperature of a cooling liquid should be established on a green zone of a scale of the device.
It is necessary to support a correct tension of belts of a drive of auxiliary units. The deflection of a belt of a drive of the fan should be in limits of 7-9 mm, a deflection of a belt of a drive of the pump of a cooling liquid and the generator — within 8—10 mm at loading on each of them 40 Н (4 кгс).
Check to carry out a dynamometer 7870-8679 as follows:
- To establish a dynamometer a lath 5 (fig. 4.36) serially on pulleys of the fan and a tension roller, the pump of a cooling liquid and the generator;
- To press a hand the handle 1 to a contact бурта 3 rods with the plug 4 and to define effort of a tension of a belt on a scale 2;
- To adjust if necessary a tension of a belt of a drive of the fan change of position of a tension roller 2 (fig. 4.19 see), a belt of a drive of the generator and the pump of a cooling liquid — change of position of the generator.
At a weak tension of belts there is their proslipping that leads to defective work of the fan, the pump of a cooling liquid and the generator, and also to strong heating and stratification of belts. The excessive tension of belts causes fast deterioration of the bearing of the fan, the pump of a cooling liquid, the generator and a tension roller, and also вытягивание and destruction of belts.
Care of the power supply system. An indispensable condition of reliable work of the power supply system is cleanliness of its devices and knots. It is necessary to fill in in a tank only pure gasoline, and also periodically to merge a sediment and water from a tank.
It is necessary to check carefully tightness of connections топливопроводов and other knots of system at good illumination, at frequency of rotation of the cranked shaft, corresponding to idling.
Подтекание fuel creates danger of a fire. Thinnesses of connections are eliminated by a tightening of nuts, unions and collars.
Care of a drive throttle and air заслонок consists in replacement of the details which have refused in
- To work.
Installation of a drive throttle заслонок (fig. 4.25 see) is necessary for carrying out as follows:
— To establish tips with epiploons 5 and 18 in a guard передка cabins and an arm 7 carburettors;
— To pass a rope through apertures of tips 5 and 18 from outside cabins;
— To insert the ends of an internal tube of a cover 3 into nests of tips 5 and 18, and the ends of an external tube to put on the ends of tips;
— To put the end of a rope with a tip in a nest connecting муфты 6 and to fix its finger with шплинтом on the lever of a pedal a cut upwards;
— Keeping a pedal 11 pressed to a floor rug, and sector 13 in position completely open throttle заслонок, to fix a rope 16 on sector 13 by means of скобы 12;
— If necessary as more as possible precisely to adjust a tension of a rope moving of a tip 18 in an arm 1 and by means of nuts 17 (for maintenance of full opening and closing throttle заслонок);
- Having finished adjustment, sector 13 to establish in position completely closed throttle заслонок (a pedal in the top position) and to fix the terminator of the lever 8 in position of contact with an arm 9.
At installation of flexible draught not to admit abrupt excesses of a rope, as in the presence of a bend on a rope probably its jamming in a cover, and also premature breakage of a rope and deterioration of plastic tubes.
Care of the air filter consists in periodic replacement of a filtering element. For this purpose it is necessary to unfasten five latches and to uncover the filter. At filter assemblage it is necessary to pay attention to a correct arrangement of condensing linings between the case of the filter and a filtering element, filter covers, and also connection of the case with the carburettor.
At filter repair replace the details which have refused work.
Care of the fuel filter-sediment bowl consists in periodic to sediment plum (through 20 000 km) through a drain stopper, washing of the case of the filter and its filtering element seasonally, once a year.
For removal of a filtering element it is necessary to turn away two bolts of fastening of an arm 8 (fig. 4.27 see) sediment bowl to a frame, to turn away bolts 1, to remove the case 9 with an arm 8, to remove a washer 12 and a spring 11.
Filtering element and the filter case to wash out pure неэтилированным gasoline.
At filter-sediment bowl assemblage it is necessary to watch correctness of installation of linings 2 and 6.
Care of the filter of thin clearing of fuel consists in periodic clearing through 20 000 km of a sediment bowl from a dirt and deposits, washing of a mesh filtering element or in replacement of a paper filtering element (for engines of release till 2001), filter replacement in gathering (for engines of release since 2001).
Care of the fuel pump consists in periodic removal of a dirt from a head and washing of the mesh filter.
There are two ways of check of the pressure developed by the pump.
The first way. Check carry out directly on the car with the engine working on is minimum steady turns. The fuel pump disconnect from the carburettor (an engine food is carried out самотеком) and connect to a manometre with a scale to 100 кПа (1 kgs/sm 2). For the serviceable pump pressure should be within 23—32 кПа (0,23—0,32 kgs/sm 2). It is possible to check up pressure of the pump, but it is less exact, without disconnecting it from the carburettor, and having attached a manometre through a tee screwed on an exit of fuel from the pump. Having checked up pressure, stop the engine. Pressure indications on a manometre scale should remain not less than 10 seconds faster pressure drop testifies to malfunction of the pump.
The second way. Pump check is made on the special device (fig. 4.37) which should provide height всасывания and forcings of 500 mm.
At check on this device the fuel pump should meet following requirements: at frequency of rotation of a camshaft of the device of 120 mines-1 the pump should provide:
- Pressure of zero giving 23 32 кПа (0,23—0,32 kgs/sm 2);
- The minimum depression on a line всасывания not less than 48,5 кПа (365 mm hg). Pressure and the depression created by the pump, should remain at the switched off drive not less than 10 seconds;
— Pump giving at frequency of rotation of a camshaft of the device of 1800 mines-1 should be not less than 145 л/ч.
Care of the carburettor includes:
— Survey and dust and dirt removal and check of tightness of all connections, stoppers and заглушек;
— Check and adjustment of level of fuel in поплавковой to the chamber;
— Check of adjustment of system of idling;
— Clearing and washing of channels and dosing out elements of the carburettor.
Fuel level in поплавковой to the chamber is checked once a year on the car established on a horizontal platform, at the idle engine and the removed cover of the carburettor. Fuel level should be in limits of the size "And" (20—23 mm from a socket plane поплавковой chambers). Level adjustment is made подгибанием a uvula 4 (fig. 4.38) the lever of a float 1. Thus the float should be in horizontal position, and the valve stroke 3 should be 2,0—2,3 mm. The valve stroke is regulated подгибанием a uvula 2 levers of a drive. During adjustment поплавкового the mechanism it is necessary to be careful not to damage a sealing washer 5.
If adjustment does not give desirable result, it is necessary to check up поплавковый the carburettor mechanism. Usually the reasons of the raised or lowered level of fuel in поплавковой to the chamber are негерметичность a float, its wrong weight or негерметичность the fuel valve.
Tightness of a float is checked by its immersing in hot water with temperature not more low 80 ° With and time of endurance not less than half-minute. At infringement of tightness of a float, on what will specify an exit of vials of air, the float should be soldered, preliminary having removed from it gasoline. After the soldering it is necessary to check up its tightness and weight again. The weight of a float in gathering with the lever should be no more than 12,5
In a case негерметичности the fuel valve it is necessary to replace a sealing washer 5.
After check and malfunction elimination поплавкового the mechanism it is necessary to check up again size of level of fuel in поплавковой to the chamber and if necessary to adjust it as it is specified above.
Adjustment of the minimum frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of the engine, the maintenance окиси carbon (WITH) and hydrocarbons (СН) in the fulfilled gases on an idling mode is made by a technique of GOST 17.2.2.03—87 on special posts in motor transport services or at servicing deports of cars (СТОА).
The maintenance WITH and СН in the fulfilled gases should not exceed:
3,5 % WITH and 1200 million-1 СН at the minimum frequency of rotation of idling (600±50) mines-1;
2,0 % WITH and 600 million-1 СН at the raised frequency of rotation of idling (2700±50) mines-1.
Check should be made on the engine, heated-up to temperature of a cooling liquid 80—90 ° With, and at completely open air заслонке the carburettor.
Procedure for test following:
— To allow to the engine to work during 15 seconds on the raised frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft;
— To lower frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft to the minimum turns of idling;
— In 20 seconds on the established minimum frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft to make check of the maintenance WITH and СН in the fulfilled gases.
Sharp transitions from one mode on another are not supposed.
Before adjustment it is necessary to be convinced of serviceability of system of ignition, having paid special attention on a condition of candles and correctness of backlashes between electrodes, and also for engines ZMZ-4025, ЗМЗ-4026 and УМЗ to check up and if it is required to adjust a corner of an advancing of ignition on the minimum frequency of rotation of idling and backlashes between коромыслами and valves газораспределительного the mechanism.
Adjustment is made on the engine, heated-up to temperature of a cooling liquid 80—90 ° With.
Adjustment order the following:
- To remove a restrictive cap from the screw 2 (fig. 4.39) mix structure (the quality screw).
- The screw 2 and the screw 3 operational регулиловки frequencies of rotation of idling (the quantity screw) to curtail against the stop, but not too hardly, then to turn away the screw 3 on 5—6 turns, and the screw 2 — on 2—3 turns.
- To start up the engine and the screw 3 to establish frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft (600±50) mines-1;
- To adjust the maintenance окиси carbon and hydrocarbons in the fulfilled gases, screwing the screw 2 and supporting the specified frequency of rotation by the screw 3.
To achieve steady work of the engine.
For the purpose of maintenance of optimum power setting the factory recommends to establish the maintenance WITH within 0,5 ч 1,5 % and maintenance СН — no more than 800 million-1.
— To increase frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft to (2700±50) mines-1 and to check up the maintenance окиси carbon and hydrocarbons. According to GOST 17.2.2.03—87 it should not exceed accordingly 2 % and 600 million-1. Excess of norms specifies in malfunction of the carburettor.
- For check of correctness of adjustment to press a pedal of an accelerator and sharply to release it. If the engine decays, at the expense of insignificant вывертывания the screw 3 to increase frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft, but no more (600±50) mines-1.
- After the adjustment termination on the screw 2 to put a restrictive cap. Its colour should differ from colour of the cap established by manufacturer.
While in service screws 2 and 3 independently authorise to make only updating of factory adjustment for reception of the steadiest work of the engine on the minimum frequency of rotation of idling. Thus ввертывание the screw 2 it is supposed only on a corner limited to moving of a tag of a restrictive cap from an emphasis against the stop (approximately on 270 °). Attempts to turn a restrictive cap on больший a corner will lead to its destruction.
Cleaning and carburettor washing should be made on the pure, specially equipped workbench. For performance of these works the carburettor is necessary for disassembling completely then carefully to wash out external and internal surfaces of a cover, carburettor cases, диффузоров, cases throttle заслонок to clear of resinous adjournment and to wash out fuel, air and эмульсионные jets, and also channels in the carburettor case. For washing it is necessary to use неэтилированный gasoline. The carburettor and its details after washing should be продуты compressed air.
Washing of the carburettor by solvents and rubbing of details обтирочными are not supposed by the ends. Cleaning of the calibrated apertures by metal subjects categorically is forbidden. At dismantling and assemblage it is necessary to use only the serviceable tool in order to avoid failure шлицев and смятия nuts.
The inhaling of fixing details of the carburettor should be made in regular intervals, without supposing коробления flanges.
Care of system рециркуляции consists in clearing by a wire in diameter of apertures of 4 mm in an inlet pipe and their purge at the removed valve рециркуляции through 60 000 km of run of the car.
Care of system of release of the fulfilled gases consists in a periodic tightening of all fastenings, especially connections of the muffler, the resonator and an exhaust pipe. The failed muffler, the resonator and fastening details is replaced with the new.
Care of an engine mount consists in periodic (through 20 000 km) check of its condition, a tightening of fastening of arms and rubber pillows. For increase in durability of pillows it is necessary to watch that on them oil did not get. It is necessary to replace the failed pillows.